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Healthy growth of any child

Healthy growth of any child in any part of this world is of much essence not only to the parents but most importantly to those kids themselves something that they will all come to appreciate in their future life. We must as well acknowledge the fact that in the current century technology is a bigger part of our lives and whether we like it or not we will at one point need it to better our lives and as a result most parents have chosen to introduce their children to the world of technology as early as possible. Technology like any other manmade thing on this beautiful planet earth has its negative effects on our lives and therefore it is the responsibility of parents or guardians to ensure that these children grow up avoiding the bad and picking the right ones only (Guernsey, 2007).

Technology can affect the life of a child in many different ways and a good example is the way social media has managed to take away the amount of time children especially tweens spend with their parents and therefore the relationship between parents and them has become worrying since they do not open up to each other compared to kids who talk and spend more time with their parents or even older relatives. Technology might as well destroy healthy growth of these kids because they spend more time seated using phones and computers or watching TV rather engaging in healthy activities like playing which is a good source of exercise to them (Guernsey, 2007).

There are a lot of consequences in terms of development in the lives of these children who are exposed to technology both negative and positive and to analyze this we are going enlighten some of these consequences. The positive ones included the exposure tweens get when for example using phones to socialize with their peers. With phones and computers they feel a bit free to share information unlike when they use verbal communication. Another value that we should appreciate is the skills that some of the kids might develop as they grow for example a game that they play on their computer might equip a child with skills that might help determine his/her career in future (Guernsey, 2007).

There are a lot of negative consequences as well when parents do not control the amount of time children spend indulging in technology. If not monitored technology can replace the connection of a child with nature something that we all ought to grow up appreciating. Connection with nature gives a child a sense of responsibility and that way they learn to care about nature and preserve it as well once they have understood about it and that is only achieved by spending time with the outside world.

Children who spend more time with technology also tend to build more trust on it than their parents in that they seek solution and are more open to it than they are to their parents and therefore this weakens the bond between them.

Online bullying also known as cyber bullying is the act of cruel treatment to users of internet buy other users who are after self-interest by use of cruel messages or images most of which are personal. It is clear to note that it is illegal and totally wrong to bully but most of these cases do not even come to light due to embarrassment caused by this actions.

Unlike the previous generation the current generation use internet, something that has given power to internet users to access all sorts of information and share a lot within a short period of time and this information is accessible to everyone including those bullying other users. Online bullying can therefore expose a child to bad behavior that they might not wish to share. These behaviors can change the way a kid relates to anyone because of feeling unappreciated and disliked by others (Costabile, Spears, 2012).

Online bullying may as well affect the performance of a child in school because of feeling confined because their personal space or inner morale has been destroyed.  Self-estimate is based on confidence and once that is taken away from a kid it is completely hard for that child to face daily challenges with courage (Chapman, Arlene, 2014).

Children who experience this type of bullying also tend to pick certain habits in attempt to manage the stress they undergo and these habits include indulging in drugs and taking alcohol at an early age. The health of these kind of children are therefore affected massively because first they learn to do drugs and secondly they pick a bad habit of not being able to manage stress in a proper way.

Most of the online bullies use information that most of the time is considered by the victim as private and therefore they grow up feeling completely insecure because they will always have it in mind that this world is no safe place for them.

Just like any other problem online bullying has solutions and it can be prevented even before it happens rather than after. First it is important to note that people get bullied depending on the type of sites they visit therefore parents can manage online bullying by guiding their kids on the safe sites and good games to play not forgetting the type of videos to watch (Costabile, Spears, 2012).

Another important measure is by using applications that help us keep watch of the passwords and ensure they are protected from someone trying to access them. By now we know that only if someone gets access to these kids’ computers or mails is when they can cause damage therefore why not work hard to prevent them.

Parents should as well teach their children to learn to talk to them or even their friends more than sharing important information with strange users that they come across online. This helps them keep their secrets and important information to the right people whom they can always rely on. Technology is important tool in our lives today but it is important for parents to know that with their guidance their children will learn the positive consequences and grow up as better people.

REFERENCE

Guernsey, L. (2007) Into the Minds of Babes.  U.S.A: Basic Books.

Costabile, A. Spears, B. A (2012) The Impact of Technology on Relationships in Educational Settings. U.S.A: Routledge.

 Chapman, G. Arlene, P. (2014) Growing up social. U.S.A: Moody Pub.

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INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STRATEGY

Information technology is a key factor in our modern business world because it enables organizations and firms such as Zeta to reach out to clients all over the world and serve them diligently. Zeta just like any other firm around the world has its clients as its first priority and therefore to boost the services they offer to them they must advance their IT in order to satisfy them and by so doing they need to employ quality IT strategy so as to avoid any challenges that may be brought about by services they wish to offer online through their website. Any firm however must learn that in order to have a good IT strategy then they will require top quality IT enterprise architects to formulate not just a good strategy but one that is going to be efficient for quite a long time.

One of the steps to consider when developing an IT strategy is that the strategy should work towards marketing the firm and portray a brighter future therefore making both the firms employees and the client to work with a clear mind of reaching greater heights. Another key step is that it should be transparent in that it allows clients and other people who might wish to get informed on how the systems runs and how efficient is its delivery in terms of customer satisfaction. An open strategy helps a lot in terms of trust development towards the system especially with customers who wish to pay for their products or services online before receiving them.

A good IT strategy should as well consider the organization of the system, the system should not just enable the firm to store its data in the right place but should as well ensure that they are placed in a specific order in that similar or related information is grouped together. Another key step is how the system is going to integrate into the market in other words the strategy should without failure adapt to the new market and enable the firm to conduct its business as usual as well as make it better or improve its growth tremendously.

Developing this strategy is going to be faced with some major challenges but that does not necessarily mean that they are not going to be resolved. Amongst the challenges is the lack of management required to oversee how the strategy is going to function and ensure that it runs well all the time. This occurs due to how big the structure is going to be considering that most firms including Zeta serve a large market that is evenly distributed. Second challenge is the ability of the strategy to change over time given the fact that new technology keeps coming up every single day it therefore makes it hard for a firm to stick with one structure for a long period of time. The last but not least is the management of budget given that different groups carry out their funding at different times of the day or month therefore making it hard to follow one strategic way of planning the budget.    

REFERENCE

McKean, D. 2012IT Strategy & Technology Innovation. LONDON: BookBoon.

Barksdale, S. Lund, T. 2006 10 Steps to Successful Strategic Planning. VIRGINIA: ASTD Press.

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ORIGINS OF TERRORISM

Terrorism has been in existence for as long as I remember and before talking about how it has changed over years it is important to first understand that the term terrorism stands for violence against humanity by certain people for self-gain and is usually characterized by political and religious motives. Terrorism is a crime against humanity and nothing can justify their actions in what so ever way.

            There has been a lot of changes in terrorism by the terrorist themselves on quite a range of issues running from the funding down to how they commit this bloodier killings. Unlike in the past they have resorted to widening their groups by creating political movements in various states therefore carrying out more attacks across the world. Funding is no longer just done by certain states but they have developed new strategies of getting resources and money to support their organization and the main reason as to why state funding of terrorism has reduced is due to sanctions imposed on any state found guilty of this act. Technology wise is something they have greatly embrace too because their weapons and their form of communication has changed tremendously over a period of time and the fact that they can pass messages to the public easily has somehow worked for them (Pisoiu, 2014).

            The article by Jenkins is therefore true to say it is like it was written this year because everything he talked about is what is being seeing today happening. There has been great change in the way terrorism is being carried out and if they do not stop now then it will only get worse. 

REFERENCE

Pisoiu, D. (Ed). (2014)Arguing Counterterrorism: NEW YORK. Routledge.

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CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

Social corporate responsibility is a set code of conduct that a business organization uses to control its day to day activities and ensure that they comply with the international standard laws. It is the responsibility of every business entity to formulate their own rules which guide them to obey the corporate social responsibility and to ensure that this rules help promote a positive growth of the business where both the community and the business benefit equal. Social responsibility is observed through the business organization empowering the community by ensuring that the environment is preserved and that no activity at any cost will result in the pollution of the environment. It is important to also note that different business entities have their own different set of laws as long as they observe the international standard law (Maurrasse, Jones, 2003).

            Volkswagen just like other business entities have laws and they have their strengths and weaknesses. Amongst the key corporate responsibility offered by my company is the charity support given to the disable community in the America by the Volkswagen Group of America. The company has offered support to the disable for many years something viewed as a sense of responsibility to help the less fortune and give them a better life. Corporate social responsibility encourages us to give back to the community in any way possible and I therefore feel that by doing this my company has shown strongly that it does not only use the community to grow its business but that whatever the company has achieved it has given back to the society just as well (Auhagen, Bierhoff, 2001).

            Volkswagen has also ensured that the whenever it is carrying out any activity or project outside its place of daily business then it is going to observe certain guidelines which include involving the community around and engaging them in their activities therefore making the project part of that particular area. The company also ensures that the activities carried out at that particular area is managed there and by the local management team therefore making that team part of the company’s achievement. The company will as well discuss the key business activities by the local business group who play a role in that certain type of business or project carried out in that local region. The forth norm that Volkswagen company observe when carrying out projects outside is that it uses the local rules to help guide carry out that particular project therefore enabling the company to respect the laws of the locals. By so doing Volkswagen does not just commit itself to respecting other people’s rules but taking their projects to different place as well. The international social corporate responsibility fights for the involvement of locals and empowering them and by so doing the Volkswagen reaches out to different people from different diversities and therefore giving a positive impact to these communities without being seen as to have chosen a particular group to work with. The products of Volkswagen is enjoyed by everyone around the world therefore carrying out some of the projects away from home country brings a feeling of together amongst all (Sparkes, 2000).

            Volkswagen Company has a set of rules as well that ensure that their products are harmless to the environment. This rules guide in the production of the products that do not pollute the environment which in this case is the air pollution. The corporate social responsibility has specified that any product of any company or any process by all businesses do not pollute the environment but instead ensure sustainable environment for all. These laws as well will ensure that companies take responsibility in case they are found to have commit such an offence (Ledgerwood, Broadhurst, 2000)

            The company as well ensures that the working conditions give its employees a chance to educate themselves and encourages them to be competent in any way possible therefore making them a better people not just at work but even with their personal lives. The company as well encourages creativity and this is motivated by the fact that the company puts into place an idea that is found to be a game changer. The standard laws requires that the employees’ welfare is as well respected and upheld always. A happy employee gives his/her best to the company and I am glad that Volkswagen is fully committed to ensuring that its employees leave their work as a better people as to when they joined the company. Besides that I also think this motivates employees to work towards achieving the goals of the company because they feel as part of the company.  

            Challenges will always be there and no matter how much we try there is always going to be something hard to clear out but it can be minimized never the less. Conflicting ideas rise up as a result of company’s efforts to meet its targets and goals. It does not necessarily mean that the management of the company is aware of some of the actions taken by a certain group of employees. A good example is what happen to the Volkswagen vehicles that were recalled after they were found with fault. It was regrettable especially given the fact that the supervising board were not aware of what had happened until it was late. It is therefore clearly seen that as much as the business entities try hard to abide by the corporate social responsibility some challenges are hard to avoid but can only be reduced.

            According to the theories I strongly think that the social corporate responsibility should push for profit making just as well as it pushes for these responsibilities to be observed by business entities. Business is about profit making as well as maintaining good image to the public and creating a market that will sustain the business for a long time if not forever. These laws should benefit everyone but it should as well respect business goals. Business entities should as well learn that this laws are not meant to derail their goals but to make them better.

REFERENCE

Maurrasse, D. Jones, C. (2003) A Future for Everyone: Innovative Social Responsibility And Community Partnerships: NEW YOKR. Routledge.

Auhagen, A. E. Bierhoff, H. W. (2001) Responsibility: The Many Faces of a Social Phenomenon: NEW YORK. Routledge.

Nemeth, N. (2003) Assessing an Experiment in Social Responsibility: U.S.A. Praeger Publisher

Sparkes, R. (2002) Social Responsible Investment: A Global Revolution: U.S.A. Wiley

Ledgerwood, G. Broadhurst, A. I. (2000) Environment Ethics and the Corporation:  LONDON. Macmillan.

Lewis, A. Warneryd, K. E. (1994) Ethics and Economic Affairs: NEW YORK. Routledge

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life on planet Mars

The paper review is about the experiment on life on planet Mars in the efforts to justify if truly the planet can support life like our mother earth. To corroborate the argument or believe by various scientist across the world scientist from Europe decided to use some organic matter in the name of Fungi and Lichens an experiment title EXPOSE-E and after a period of 18months the organism were brought back and analyzed accordingly that is according to the research group.

            The assumption that the planet Mars could support life was arrived at due to the presence of key components of life supporting mechanism which included water which therefore justifies the assumption. It is important though to note that various aspects were under investigation when the experiment LIFE was conducted in mars and this included climate change, temperature variation and magnetic radiation and these conditions were found to be favorable only for a short period of time and that long exposure to these adverse conditions may cause a lot of damage. The research was however to prove if by any changes Mars can support life though I would critically question the harsh conditions which include high UV radiations that could be so damaging to human life I therefore think Mars is not ideal for supporting life and if by chance this is going to change then I think it will not be any time soon. Fungi was picked for this research because of its good properties to survive severe conditions as proved when they were exposed to conditions in Antarctica.

            It was however found that after 18 months in mars the fungi which were from Antarctic managed to retain about 60% of its cell meaning the survival rate was higher and therefore much of its DNA was stable. During this experiment of life which is also referred to as experiment LIFE a lot of factors were analyzed and this include temperature which was found to fluctuate from time to time from as high as 200C to about -1530C , cosmic radiation was also another factor and lastly the UV radiation. Lichens just like fungi though from Spain and Australia also showed survival rate in mars to be of high consideration since they were able to withstand this harsh conditions.  It is important to also note that similar fungi and lichens were exposed to similar conditions on earth and they were able to show high metabolic rate compared to the ones taken to mars something that I think shows how much work the scientist still have in the attempt to prove that life can be supported on planet mars just as it can be here on earth but it is important as well to appreciate the fact that the rate of growth of life shown by both fungi and lichens was high given the big amount of carbon dioxide and UV radiations that they experienced. These organism as seen in the Antarctic survive by finding a way into the cracks on rocks therefore reducing the adverse conditions.

            By obtaining this kind of result from experiment life I think it goes deeply into our hearts how much we have placed ourselves in the middle of finding or proving that we can as well find life in mars to be fully supported. Getting a survival chance was a big deal let alone if it is only for a specific period of time. The prove that these organism were able to stay alive for that specific period of time and managing to maintain up to 35% of its DNA fully intact and even grow gives scientist a reason to believe in finding ways to moderate these conditions or even create a way that life can be supported on Mars.

            I however would like to note the fact that fungi and lichens are not from either plats nor animal organism therefore it would not be an understatement for me to point out that I still feel there is lack of support for healthy growth of life for organic matter. As for now am justified to say that life on Mars is way from reach and it may never really support real life in the long run but if by any chance the planet earth was in the same condition billions of years back then may be sometime in the future might turn up right.

            Results from the experiment life is part of the essential records that scientist would find pride in keeping so as to use it as a guidance to evaluate their next experiment as they dig deep to find answers to resolve their discovery questions about life and how it came to existence. The same team are currently working on a new EXPOSE which they claim will focus on exposing fungi and lichens to more time.

REFERENCE

Onofri, S. Vera, J. P. Zucconi, L. Selbmann. L. Scalzi, G. Venkateswaran, K. J. Rabbow, E. Torre, R. Horneck, G. (2015) Antartic fungi survive Martian conditions on the International Space Station. Astrobiology. 15,12

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CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT

Curriculum development is the creation of a set of academic content or courses that are to be used in school to guide in teaching students in order to examine them at the end of that particular curriculum and determine whether or not they passed so as to certify them accordingly.

Q.2 Which curriculum development model appeals to you most? Explain why.

The Tyler model appeals to me most and the model was first established in 1949 by Ralph Tayler. The curriculum covers or answers for major questions which contribute a lot to the education world. I do find the model to be amongst the top curriculum that were ever formulated to guide in teaching. The first important step in the Tyler model is it first seeks to determine the objective of school which basically answers the questions as to why students. The model suggests that all schools should strongly stick to what they teach their students and should concentrate more on achieving this.

The second step that makes Tyler model’s curriculum a great model is enhancing experience and this means equipping students with the necessary experience to develop the required skills to improve their knowledge on whatever they are being taught or rather to boost the first step. Third step is all about organization which is ensuring that the learners follow a stipulate formulae in their efforts to gather experience in order to meet the objectives of the curriculum. Final step is about testing students on whatever they have learned throughout the three steps in order to examine whether they pass and are capable of using those skills outside school (Tyler, 949).

Q.3. Understanding curriculum design is critical to the whole curriculum development process. What are your thoughts on this assertion?

It is very important to note that before engaging in anything it is important to understand it first so as to achieve the targeted goals. Understanding curriculum design is important not just for students but teachers as well because it gives them knowledge on the proper development of the curriculum process. Teachers should as well learn more on how the curriculum molds the student and what it brings in their lives after whole curriculum process.

Learners should know that a set curriculum model should be well learnt and fully understood and this in turn enables the teachers to critically analyze how well students have developed over period of time as directed by the curriculum. Development of a curriculum as well is dependent on various stages of learning which include delaying the process of learning to give time for students to understand each and every stage of the learning process. Another stage involves studying the whole syllabus and understanding all the content and the other stage is participating in activities that relate to the curriculum but equips learners with the necessary skills. Examining students by teachers gives them a better chance to understand or weight the efforts put by these students on their curriculum. Spending much time learning and understanding the design draws good knowledge of the process and it is important to note that education is a process that takes time to fully develop a system that can be certified to equip students with the necessary skills and knowledge.

REFERENCE

Tyler, R. (1949) Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instructions: CHICAGO. The University of Chicago Press.

Pinar, F. W. Reynolds, W. Slattery, P. Taubman, P. (1995) Understanding Curriculum: NEW YORK. Peter Lang Publishing Group.

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RETRIBUTIVE CEILING AND RETRIBUTIVE FLOOR

Retributivism is the act of proving that the punishment a person is subject to because of the crime committed is right. Retributivism seeks to justify punishment other that the outcome of the punishment at the end of the sentence. Retributive floor is the concept that is used to determine the amount of punishment one should be given by letting for example an offender serve the first years then determine whether it is deserved or he/she should serve the remaining five or so years. This theory is also known as the lower limit. Retributive ceiling as known as upper limit and it is the type of concept that allows an offender to face full amount of years sentenced in order to fully pay for the crime that he/she as committed but the time served should also not exceed the time deserved for the crime (Heffernan, 2014).

            International homicide is a serious crime that once investigated the offender should be sentenced accordingly and depending on the fact that it is a crime committed internationally meaning it is outside the offender’s home country then it should be given much consideration as to whether lower limit or upper limit should be the ideal concept to use in order to arrive at the best form of sentence. Retributive floor would mean that giving a specific amount of time to observe the offender who in this case has taken a life of a fellow human therefore subjecting himself to a serious crime and one that should not go unpunished in what so ever way.

            Retributive ceiling theory will subject the offender to serve all the deserved years in order to pay back for the life taken and whether the offender will get to learn from the sentence for the crime committed does not matter. By serving all the years the crime will be fully paid by the offender facing the consequences the hard way and therefore allowing justice prevail and letting the affected victims find justice for the loss of their loved one.

            My conclusions are based on the fact that the crime committed is international homicide and the fact that retributive ceiling is more appropriate way of punishing homicide since it is one life for another. Retributive floor lets the offender serve a portion of the whole sentence then determine whether it is deserved when we clearly know that the life he/she took cannot be brought back therefore why give the offender a chance to weigh his/her deserved sentence yet he/she should be living by the consequences of the crime committed.

            The two concept are working because not all crimes committed face the same sentence therefor letting the two be used to determine what concept should be used whenever the sentence is passed would be ideal. Some crimes make it hard for a specific period of time to be passed as the final sentence therefore by allowing retributive floor concept to be used to weigh how appropriate the time served is realistic whereas for other serious crimes like terrorism for example involves the offender living by consequences without getting an option to determine whether the time given is deserved.

REFERENCE

Heffernan, W. C. (2014) Dimensions of Justice: U.S.AJones & Bartlett Learning

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IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL AGE AND THE RISE OF CAPITALISM

Industrial age is the revolution in the economy from one that involved a lot of handicraft to one run by machineries and industries as a daily means of making ends meet. Industrial age has brought a lot of change in our lives most of which has been a tremendous improvement and we are going to look into some key changes that people have experienced in this age. Capitalism on the other hand is the change in how the economy works and the people owning major contributors of the economy instead of these activities being owned by the Government, and by contributors of economy I mean the production of goods and services and their distributions. It is therefore justifiable to say that with emergence of industrial revolution there has been a great growth in capitalism.

            Agricultural conditions are some of the major changes brought about by the industrial age. First was the improvement on the working conditions which involved use of machines in farms for planting and harvesting therefore simplifying the work of farmers as well as increasing the production. Quality of crops also improved due to new technique which includes use of fertilizers and enhanced irrigation schemes which ensured agriculture could be carried out in different seasons without expecting poor harvest. The revolution has also improved the storage of food and has further enabled improved ways of turning raw food to edible products that can stay for longer periods without going bad for example the canned food or bottled drinks (Wagner, 2005).

            Health is another key area that has experienced a lot of positive change and improvement which include availability of equipment which aid the treatment of patients suffering from adverse medical conditions like cancer or bad accidents. It has also aided in development of improved drugs due to growth in the chemistry field and now research has been enabled meaning finding a cure for most disease is now easier. Besides with good treatment facilities the life expectancy has also improved due to good diet and healthy feeding habits. People have also been taught how well to monitor their nutrition therefore boosting their health conditions.   

            Transportation has faced great growth as well and unlike 18th century transporting goods and people is much easier. Instead of animal transport industrial age has brought use of machines like vehicles, planes and even trains therefore saving on a lot of time wasted on getting something from one point to another. These means of transportation have also resulted in safer means of transporting goods and reaching out to different parts of the world within a short period of time.

            Increase in wealth is as a result of industrial age as well due to improvement in the working conditions, high production rate and good business techniques which are as a result of good education system. Growth in wealth on the other hand gave rise to classes in terms of working and social environment due to income that people are now able to achieve and therefore improve their lives (Amin, 2013).

 Capitalism has improved a lot and I believe the fact that it involves major economic players being owned privately has resulted in the unending daily growth. Capitalism in some way has motivated these players because in a way it makes one crave for more success knowing that the more effort they put in the more income and self-growth they achieve. According to Amin capitalism has pushed these individuals to seek for more income and profit other than considering other aspects of economic growth.

            Capitalism has been brought about by rise in different things under the industrial revolution which has given power to some individual to own the market and dictate how it runs. These features include growth in technology which has boosted both production and distribution of products to different places of the world. Growth of towns or urbanisation in other words has centralised people and therefore created a suitable environment for capitalism. Through this improvement capitalism has therefore had an impact in improving lives of people in the society since most people now have a source of income therefore better lives.

            Rise in capitalism has also had its negative impacts because it has given a blind eye to a free and fair market in that those concerns are only interest in how much bigger they want to grow instead of pushing for ways that will as well improve the lives of people around them. Uncontrolled market means only the bigger players can afford to carry out business as usual whereas the growing businesses cannot live to see the face of tomorrow.  

            Human development is beyond economic growth or rather capitalism which in this case I consider it as just a portion that if well-developed then growth of human in all directions will be achieved. According to Walton a fair capitalism is one that is sustainable focuses on the human development as well as the economic growth. The interest of capitalism brings out the core differences and the best way to achieve a sustainable growth is to concentrate on balancing capitalism and human development.

            Capitalism various, there is one that is inclusive and by the term itself it means the system focuses on all the aspects of growth where profit is made but with consideration of developing the economy and involving other key players in the market. This type also gives opportunity to entrepreneurial growth which gives room to small businesses to venture into the market.

            Oligarchy is another type of capitalism as referred by Walton and is also known as destructive since it is centred in profit making, it dictates the cost of products on the market therefore enjoying monopoly and does not at any cost consider human development. To achieve a suitable capitalism that concentrates on all aspects of growth for both the economy and improvement of human life the some factors have to be put in place. First the state must step in to ensure that cost is controlled by formulating ways to control the cost and market and by so doing the state creates a conducive market for all players to participate in as well as balancing the economic growth (Walton, 2010).

            Ensuring a balance growth will also require social forces to push for fair capitalism and that is by making sure that whatever actions the players take on the market is of benefit to the human growth as well as the economy in a more positive way.  The rise of capitalism that favours human development should be one that is gradual. To achieve the type that ensures that everyone grows gradually as the economy grows then both the state and the capitalist must merge forces to bring about change and ensure accountability in the system.

            Studying contemporary capitalism will require one not just to analyse the growth of capitalism but to live it as well. Contemporary capitalism has more to do with the society than just development of the economy. Society growth on the other hand is the growth of all aspects of human that is from availability of basic necessities, good health, and availability of education together with stable political state. Studying capitalism is learning how the production and supply of goods has come to be owned by individuals and what influence they have brought about after acquiring this powers. Capitalism has not only enabled growth of individual lives but it has contributed a lot to the economic growth of the respective societies. Capitalism has brought about the desire to achieve more by this individuals therefore creating more market to make more profit which has in turn pushed for people to go into trade to fit in the changing environment.

            Rise in capitalism has therefore forced state to develop ways of managing the market not just to ensure economic growth but to also ensure there is fair growth in the society and that the market can adapt all. First the state has created new market so as to enable those people who had not been reached to get a chance to trade in and also grow economically. The responsible authorities have also been forced to formulate policies that govern the business field and ensure that people or small scale business are not exploited.

            Improved capitalism has given rise to a lot of change in the life of human and the environment around them. First the development of stable political environment because with a stable environment trade is enhanced. The welfare of people has also improved since capitalism has brought stable income and the only way to sustain the contributors of these type of economy is by improving their lives. Through capitalism the state is able to ensure the product produce are of high quality and that there is efficiency in the market in terms of supply of goods. Innovation has also been improved because there has been an internal competition between the capitalist whereby every party wants to have a top quality product that attracts a lot of buyers which therefore means more income generated. This does not only favour the capitalist but the growth of the economy in the society because the competition draws more players all over the region.

            Industrial age has contributed a lot to the economic growth that we experience today and it is only fair to say that perhaps there could not be any other way the economy would have improved was it not for industrialization. With industrial growth came the innovation of new machines that improved the production rate of food amongst other products and this resulted in the need to sell off these extra foods and products since people were able to produce more than they needed.

            Rise of industrialization has also enabled quick transportation of goods from one point to another therefore a larger market has been reached which in turn has generated more income to the capitalist therefore improving the economic growth of the society.

            Growth of industrialization has seen technology improved therefore facilitating cheap and efficient labour force that has seen price of products improve and increase in demand which has pushed for more production. Technology has also improved communication meaning a wide market can now be reached easily.

            With the growth of industrialization people also developed a desire to trade and create market for their goods now that they were able to produce more goods and ones that other people around the world were in need of. The growth also saw people become innovative and created other ideas which included banking services and by so doing people were given a chance to get involve in business in a more advance manner and one that provided secure means of conducting transactions and this therefore improved the economy (Weil, 2012).

REFERENCE

Wagner, C. A. (2005) New Birth of Freedom?: U.S.A. Xlibris Corporation.

Amin, S. (2013) The Implosion of Contemporary Capitalism: NEW YORK. Monthly Review Press.

 McDonough , T.  Reich, M. Kotz, D. M. (2010) Contemporary Capitalism and its Crises: U.K.Cambridge University Press.

Walton, M. (2010). Human Development Research Paper 2010/09, Capitalism, the State, and the Underlying Drivers of Human Development: NEW YORK. UNDP.

 Weil, D. N. (2012) Economic Growth: U.S.A. Pearson Addison-Wesley.

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Big Data

Big data has changed the way things work in the business industry and, therefore, we are going to analyse these concerns deeply as well as layout some of the ways that business companies can employ to tackle the challenges that have been brought about by big data. It is well known that with increase in market share, the business as well grows and, therefore, this results in big data which calls for new ways of handling the new challenge. The report below is going to discuss on what big data is and what implications it has on the business world

What is Big Data?    

Big data is the term used to describe large amount of data by a particular group and it has been concluded that normal processors cannot be able to handle this amount of data. The failure of normal processors to handle this large data has resulted in a challenge that has forced people to look for new ways of processing this data. The key factor in this report is the business industry because they are the ones facing a serious challenge in dealing with the issue. It is very important to process this type of data because once business organization or other groups have managed to process these big volumes of data, it would help them in the day to day running of their activities since a lot of decisions and business strategies rely on them. There is, therefore, a big need to find ways of analysing this data and getting to the bottom of all challenges brought by big data (Morabito, 2015).

Challenges of Big Data

To further understand how to deal with big data we are first going to discuss some of its big challenges and the first one is how first data is going to be processed. When processors were first designed, no one thought that at some point there was going to be big volumes of data streaming in within a short period of time, and which require quick analysis since every decision made depends on that very data. Business organizations have, therefore, been forced to look or employ new techniques of processing this amount of data and some of the ways that have been used include increasing the memory size, and another is in dividing this data into grids of memories where each is handled by different computer, therefore, boosting the speed of data analysed in a short period of time.

            The second challenge posed by big data is the data quality that has been analysed and it, therefore, means that it is not just about speed but rather getting the right data and using it for constructive decision that the consumers can use and end up with genuine products or solutions that they seek. Business organizations have now found it necessary to develop new strategies of managing and even analysing the already processed data so as to extract only the useful content and leave out the one that is not required. It is important to note that consumers require end products that satisfy their needs; therefore, providing them with quality data will be a major priority to the business groups (Schmarzo, 2013).

Organizations should also ensure that the data analysed is well understood since it becomes a big challenge to process large volumes and also get to properly understand all of it within a short period of time. It is, therefore, important for business groups to have people specialised in different categories to deal with different areas and feed the consumers with the right information according to the data they have analysed. Organisations are tasked with developing strategies that deal with the challenge raised by big data and to develop these type of solutions then the individuals concerned must be people who can study this data and understand it well, therefore, enabling them to come up with the right strategies of tackling big data.

            Data analysis involves displaying results on a graph and we all know that it becomes really hard for one to view a graph with millions of small data, and come up with the right information. This challenge, therefore, pushes business organizations to develop ways of ensuring that data is displayed with a lot of ease, and one good way of achieving this is by ensuring that data is grouped into small portions that can be displayed clearly and understood easily at the same time. This type of data representation allows the organization to draw up justifiable conclusions and make up decisions based on real information other than assuming the content of the data simply because one could not be able to interpret the graph well due to its confusing representation.

Benefits of Big Data

            Big data has its benefits as well and they vary accordingly. One of the benefits is that it allows the owner to customize their websites as they desire and to meet their clients’ satisfaction. This also helps to classify data in that, related data is grouped together making it easier for consumers and other users to easily find the content they wish to see or use. A good example of a business organization that has employed this is the LinkedIn where people are grouped according to their profession, and therefore, new users can easily find people they are looking for and is thus considered user friendly. Such a benefit makes the product attractive which brings in more consumers.

            Big data has also improved speed at which the data is analysed which has then influenced the decision making. Unlike in the past, organization are now able to take in a lot of data which are then processed at a go with improved processors giving results which then enables the business organization to get back to their clients within a short period of time. Big companies have now employed this type of data to quickly analyse their customers’ inquiries which has in turn helped in keeping the consumers happy and attracting larger market. This has also improved the communication between the clients and the business organization in that customers inquire about products before buying them, therefore, with quick response the businesses are able to sell more within a short period of time(Davenport, 2014).

Big data has also brought in the issue of safety because with large data that is stored in a specific storage facility within the business premises, one is able to detect any kind of threat and eliminate it before spreading out. This has also enabled organizations to formulate ways of keeping data safe by making them spend more on safety measures because of the risk that big data exposes one to.

            Cost reduction has also been improved with this type of data since large volumes of data are taken in within a short period of time and at the same cost, while in the past companies could not manage to take big quantities yet they spent the same amount of time and resources to get the data, process it and get back to their customers.

            New sources of income have also come as a result of big data. Analysis of big data has enabled organizations to have information on what is happening at a particular time thereby enabling them to act accordingly. For example Shazam application is now able to access information on where particular type of music is being played and when and who is playing that particular music, thus, making it easier for consumers of that particular product to locate the product they are interested in. This also enables the musicians to sell their music world wide because with such applications they can now reach many different markets, and by so doing, the owners of the application generate more income due to the many users of the application.

Another benefit of big data is that it has increased trustworthiness because unlike in the past organization are now able to rely on big data to make decisions or come up with justifiable conclusions. When data is analysed and results are reviewed the organization can respond to the market depending on information vetted from a big number of consumers, unlike when information from a few individuals are used to make up decisions. With this information at hand, companies are also able to judge how people perceive their products. For instance, if a large group gives a negative opinion on their product, then the company can go back to the drawing board and find a way of improving their product or even come up with a different but improved product that consumers would want to have, and this enables in the growth of the company by improving their product to boost their sales.

Conclusion

            In conclusion, it is justifiable to say that big data is now being integrated by all companies both big and small. The challenges that big data faced when it once came into play have now been resolved in a wider manner and organizations have now embraced it due to its tremendous benefits that it has brought with it. Big data has changed the face of how business works and it is only a matter of time before every kind of organization find the best way in which big data can serve and satisfy both their needs and that of their clients.

References

Davenport, T. H. (2014). Big Data at Work: Dispelling the Myths, Uncovering the Opportunities: U.S.A. Harvard Business Review Press.

Hassanien, A. E. Azar, A. T. Snásel, V. Kacprzyk, J.Abawajy, J. H. (Ed.) (2015). Big Data in Complex Systems: Challenges and Opportunities: Springer International Publishing.

Morabito, V. (2015). Big Data and Analytics: Strategic and Organizational Impacts: U.S.A. Springer.

Schmarzo, B. (2013). Big Data: Understanding How Data Powers Big Business:U.S.A. Wiley.

Wang, B. Li, R. Perrizo, W. (Ed.) (2015). Big Data Analytics in Bioinformatics and Healthcare: U.S.A. Medical Information Science Reference.

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LITERATURE REVIEW IN BUSINESS COMMUNICATION

INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICAION

            Communication in business environment is of very high essence because all the activities or duties being undertaken in the premises have to be communicate to the people concerned either from the management to the subordinate or management to management or even to the outsiders who in this case include consumers. It is therefore necessary to relay information from one point to another and this information must be accurate so as to deliver on the right kind of work requested either by management or consumer. Developing the right communication skills is therefore necessary for everyone undertaking business activities and one key area is interpersonal communication (Browne, 2012).

            Interpersonal communication enables one to convey information in business environment in both formal and informal ways but with skills that make the information being passed to be accurate and clear. Interpersonal involves four major areas and they are as follow. First is the source of the information which in this case is the person that initiates the information that is to be conveyed. Second is the messenger who is the person to deliver or the means by which information will be carried from the source. The third party is the recipient who therefore is the one the information was meant for and on receiving this information he/she is expected to understand the information and act accordingly. The fourth key party is the feedback where once the recipient has gotten the message and understood it he/she gives feedback accordingly either by sending back a message or providing what has been asked for (Keller, 2013).

NEGOTIATION

Negotiation in business is a way of settling business misunderstandings and personal interests without anyone feeling mistreated. Negotiation in business also means reaching amicable agreement between two parties where negotiations result in a win-win situation for both members. Employing good business communication skills like interpersonal communication is the best way to negotiate in business world because it brings in professionalism something that all business people respect since it takes all matters at hand to a more serious level. It is important to also note that any kind of business requires negotiation in order to win the customers’ heart and therefor enabling you to conduct business with them.   

            Business negotiation requires a lot skills and quality interpersonal communication in order to win the trust of people that one is in negotiation with. To best achieve this it is important to prepare well for any negotiation and this include good research on the topic of negotiation. Having a good background information puts one in a different level with others because besides giving you an advantage of knowing more than the rest it boost your self-esteem therefore enabling you to easily convince the other partners with a good flow of expression (Michael, 2014).

            Negotiation will as well require that you engage in business discussion so as to get room to feel the other person’s opinion and point of argument and to learn about the background information too. Once you have learned how the rest argue out you are able to drive your point home and convince them accordingly therefore reaching a mutual agreement and more important winning the battle, it is a business negotiation therefore winning should always be a concern because money and other resources are at stake.

            The best way to get the best out of a business negotiation is by ensuring that every point given out is as clear as possible because the people you are trying to convince are either consumers or fellow business people who will only invest their time and resources and more importantly money in what the business is offering them. It is therefore important to clarify each and every point and by so doing the people you are negotiating with will have an easy time trying to understand.     

            Negotiation may at the end result in an agreement which therefore means that an understanding has been reached between the negotiating parties or a disagreement as well which will therefore mean the negotiation was not convincing enough. It is not bad at all not to agree at the end especially in business talks since it is not always that we emerge as winners or people will always agree on what the business sale. I though feel that failed negotiation should give us another opportunity to redraft our ways and come up with something better that will warrant an agreement in the next negotiation if given a chance to. 

            Feedback to the agreement made during negotiation is what should classify certain negotiation as successful because for example if a business organization manages to convince their consumers on investing in their project or product then the organization should ensure that the project or product is as good as they talked about in that it enables the consumer to enjoy its benefit just as much as the business group.

CONFLICT MANAGEMENT

Conflict management in business world involves finding an amicable solution to the interest or values or decisions or even goals between different parties that interfere with each other. When two or more parties conflict it becomes hard for the daily operations of those particular organizations to be conducted and therefore there is need to solve these conflicts as soon as possible. Conflict management is therefore the act of finding a solution to the struggles between business parties.

Some of the ways to management conflict include the following ways; use of force to solve conflict and this is always one sided because those with authority use force to get whatever they want regardless of what happens to those below authority. I find that as much as it has its advantages use of force in business world does more damage than good. Use of force damages relationship between the business and the other parties this means that the two cannot do business in future smoothly. This strategy may also cost the business more because by use of force the other parties will not be willing to spend when they know very well that they were compelled to take that path and since the business group that used forced methodology want to see their actions acted upon they will have no choice but to put in more resources. This method may as well give the other party an advantage to use the same means in future if the business finds itself in similar situation (Corkindale, 2007).                    

Another strategy of conflict management is collaborating to finding a solution that works best for both parties and one that ensures both emerge as winners. This method brings together both parties therefore giving them an opportunity to relate to each other and build on respect. This method also helps the two develop trust now that they know they can count on each other to find a just solution to any conflict that may arise.

            Give and take is another form of conflict management where the parties involved just find a way to ensure that no one benefits more from the situation but instead both go home with something to hold on, it may not necessarily be what they expected as long as none of them complains about it and by so doing a quick solution is found and the tension between the two is resolved.

            The last but not the least way is avoiding the situation completely and this is by choosing not to indulge in anyway in that particular conflict. It may not be the best because the avoiding party does not gain in a way but at the same time it gives them an added advantage in that they will not go through the hustle of trying to find a working solution for both them and the other partner. This may also give the avoiding partner time to work on other things which may be of more importance than resolving conflicts which may at the end not work on their way.

INTER-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION

Intercultural communication in business world is the skills developed by business people to enable them communicate and carry out business with effectiveness throughout the world. Intercultural means the communication will focus on different type of people with different type of knowledge, languages, believes, political environment and even different ways of conducting business.

            Most of the issues which affect our business have become a global thing therefore making intercultural communication a necessity. These issues which include global effect, political conflicts and many more others affect the business in one way or another therefore there is need to pull strings together in order to find solutions to these challenges and without good intercultural communication skills then our chances of making it through are few (O’Rourke, Tule, 2009).

            Intercultural communication enables you to learn the values of other cultures which then help you to effectively conduct your business when in that particular area without going against their ways. Learning these values makes one to develop respect as well since you obey their culture and work with what interest them. In business world the best way to win the hearts of consumers is by understanding well what they want and how they carry out their activities and by so doing one can make his/her work much easier.

            Developing quality business communications skills is a must in our current world because business has become more than just making profit to something we can relate with more. It is therefore the responsibility of every company to groom people into better business persons who can create a better business world that works easily with anyone.

REFERENCE

Keller, M. (Vol. 13) 2013 Issue. Social Media and Interpersonal Communication. Great Valley Publishing Co., Inc. http://www.socialworktoday.com/archive/051313p10.shtml

Vertino, K. (2014) Effective Interpersonal Communication:   www.nursingworld.org

Michael A. (2014) Gross Negotiation and Conflict Management Research. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal

Corkindale, G. (2007) How to Manage Conflict: U.S.A. Harvard Business Review. https://hbr.org/2007/11/how-to-manage-conflict/

Scollon, R. Scollon, S.W. Jones, R. H. (2012) Intercultural Communication: A Discourse Approach: U.S.A. Wiley Blackwell.

O’Rourke, J. Tulej, E. (2009) Module 4: Intercultural Communication for Business: U.S.A   Cengage Learning.

Anthony, L. (2010) Effective Communication & Conflict Resolution: http://smallbusiness.chron.com.html

 Gregory, A. (2010) 12 Secrets of Effective Business Communication. http://www.noupe.com/business-online/12-secrets-of-effective-business-communication.html

Anderson, A. R.(2013) Successful Business Communication: It Starts At The Beginning: http://www.forbes.com/sites

Browne, O’B. (2012)The Smile Factor and International Business: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/news/intercultural-communication