Choose ONE of the following articles from the Allhoff and Vaidya textbook:

Allhoff and Vaidya

1.Aaron Quinn, “Accepting Manipulation or Manipulating What’s Acceptable?” 280-288.

2.Kenneth Kipnis, “Responsibility for the Distribution of Legal Services,” 432-442.

Section A

In essay-form, provide an explanatory summary of the author’s moral reasoning by following “A Strategy for Understanding, Developing, and Presenting Moral Arguments”

The moral issue discussed in the article by Aaron Quinn on “Accepting Manipulation or manipulating what is acceptable” is the deception and lack of transparency as an ethical challenge brought by technical advancement especially in photojournalism. Currently there are several practices of computer-based photo manipulation and the use of images which exposures are measured by intra-camera computers. When photo manipulation takes place there is a very unpleasant outcome because inaccurate and inconsistency imaging continues to create a loss of press credibility. As a result, humanity continues to lose trust in journalists for they even fail to grasp the photographic integrity. Given this background several question can be posed; but on key question still remains; how can public trust be rejuvenated in digital images in order to improve journalism public standing in general?(Quinn,2004).

Section B

Well digital images should inform and enlighten public but when tainted it is hard to understand the information that is being unfolded and so journalism confuse the public by manipulating the images. Public trust is very essential for they are the ones who empower journalists; the lack of trust being brought by digital imaging manipulation can only be rejuvenated by journalist if they accept to claim their integrity in photo-shooting. This can be done by employing prudence and consistency thus increasing accuracy as well as reclaiming the photojournalistic duty of truth telling. In journalism truth telling is theoretical principle and it should not be sidestepped. Ethically, we journalists should give power of judgment to human mind when it comes to photo-shooting rather than the machine (camera).this will definitely promote integrity, consistency and truth telling (Foreman,2010).

Section C

How can public trust be rejuvenated in digital images in order to improve journalism public standing in general? Most people can agree with Aaron Quinn arguing that lack of trust being brought by digital imaging manipulation can only be rejuvenated by journalist if they accept to claim their integrity in photo-shooting, embrace truth telling and practice prudence and consistency. Well, the answers to the above question are very technical. Photo-shooting solely relies on practicality and it is by being practical that a journalist can make good choices. And these good choices is a manipulation that incorporates a neutral form that involves skilful us of hands or any device (Quinn, 2004).

On the other hand, for the sake of personal or institutional gain manipulation contains a deceptive element which is brought about by impracticality and by making a bad choice.  The later is a pejorative form and it changes reality for the sake of news sensationalism or aesthetics. Is it ethically right to manipulate digital images for personal or institutional gain? (Quinn, 2004). Morally, the truth need to be told at all times and especially in journalism where public keeps their hope in order to get information of most of the things that are happening in the surrounding environment. Nevertheless, if the journalist does manipulate the digital image for selfish gain then it becomes hard for the public to trust them. The power of judgment when given to human mind can help journalist in truth-telling rather than attributing this power to the digital device. Public empowers journalist and it is essential that they trust them for this will help the journalists to continue earning the public respect and so retain their integrity (Gross, 2003).

Quinn insists that the existence of journalistic theory is for enhancing the public good by providing accurate information. it is this accurate information that the public use to make decision about public life.  Quinn mentions that the three ethical doctrines namely, Cosequentialism, deontology and virtual theory can be very helpful to photojournalists and the news audiences. These three elaborates and brings a better understanding on issues that surround image manipulation and the extent to which it can affect humanity and especially when it comes to the ability of making decisions. It is the work of the journalists using their moral virtue and value to bring out the inner image which can help the public to make good choices in life (Quinn, 2004). But when the digital manipulation occurs for personal gain then it becomes morally wrong.

The implementation of good virtues like integrity, accuracy and truth can greatly benefit the public and the journalists for they will be promoting trust and practicing the truth-telling as a theoretical principle. This implies that the journalists can help rejuvenate the public trust by practicing the professional ethics codes and rules of conduct. In a bad image manipulation the professional ethics codes seems to be very poorly conveyed and unenforced. Therefore, the journalistic virtues can help inform their decision making and at the same time guide their morally good actions. the journalistic virtues propagates for balance and fairness thus promoting justice, credibility which promotes integrity, accuracy and authenticity promoting honesty and truth telling and news judgment emphasizing prudence. It is these highlighted journalistic virtues that can rejuvenate public trust and help them in making good choices in public life (Quinn, 2004).

Imagine an environment where the journalists just uses a digital touch up that are either ethical or unethical without considering whether the manipulations are deceptive, untruthful or misleading. How will the public then make the right choices and make good decisions in life. This seems rather unethical; but then again how can journalists and scholars understand the moral value of presenting the right information to the public for enlightenment and to guide their decision making? It is my conviction that it is through employing the virtue ethics to intrinsically set good values. Moral choices regardless of their intensity will be the only way for journalists to rejuvenate the public trust. Journalistic truth is the way forward (Quinn, 2004).

Section D

To conclude, we can only agree that pluralistic ethics is very essential when it comes to photojournalism profession. It is these pluralistic ethics that promotes the ethical actions that can help so much in rejuvenating the public trust. It is also the pluralistic ethics of right values and virtues that are morally right when it comes to journalism. It is true that public rely on journalists to be informed and this helps them so much when making informed decisions on their life choices. Morally, the journalistic virtues can help inform their decision making and at the same time guide their morally good actions. the journalistic virtues propagates for balance and fairness thus promoting justice, credibility which promotes integrity, accuracy and authenticity promoting honesty and truth telling and news judgment emphasizing prudence. It is these highlighted journalistic virtues that can rejuvenate public trust and help them in making good choices in public life (Quinn, 2004).

According to Aaron Quinn, three ethical doctrines namely, cosequentialism, deontology and virtual theory can be very helpful to photojournalists and the news audiences. These three elaborates and brings a better understanding on issues that surround image manipulation and the extent to which it can affect humanity and especially when it comes to the ability of making decisions. It is the work of the journalists using their moral virtue and value to bring out the inner image which can help the public to make good choices in life (Quinn, 2004).

Section E

Lack of trust being brought by digital imaging manipulation can only be rejuvenated by journalist if they accept to claim their integrity in photo-shooting, embrace truth telling and practice prudence and consistency. It is the work of the journalists using their moral virtue and value to bring out the inner image which can help the public to make good choices in life. But when the digital manipulation occurs for personal gain then it becomes morally wrong. The implementation of good virtues like integrity, accuracy and truth can greatly benefit the public and the journalists for they will be promoting trust and practicing the truth-telling as a theoretical principle. The power of judgments when given to human mind can help journalist in truth-telling rather than attributing this power to the digital device. Public empowers journalist and it is essential that they trust them for this will help the journalists to continue earning the public respect and so retain their integrity (Foreman, 2010).

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