Risk assessment can be defined as the determination of quantitative/qualitative value of risk that is related to a tangible situation and a recognized threat. On the other hand, threat assessment is an approach to preventing the targeted violence. Risk and threat assessment mostly happens in well set an organization that helps to give a quantitative risk assessment. By so doing, the organization combines two components of risk namely L- the magnitude of the potential loss and the P- the probability of a loss occurring. Homeland security is one of these organizations and so it becomes the subject of my discussion whereby I will give its summary, its SWOT, and its influence of crime and criminology and how it is applicable in national and global issues among others (Bullock et al, 2013).
Structural changes were instituted in the year 2005 by Michael Chertoff; he facilitated the merging of twenty two federal agencies into the agency. For example, FEMA- Federal Emergency Management Agency got relieved from performing prevention duties so that it can respond to the terror attack and natural disasters. The information review is headed by intelligence and analysis; the directorate of policy deals with coordinating the efforts of DHS agencies thus ensuring g the consistency policy are established and respected. Policy shops are no longer having the relatively independent policies this was the case before the reorganization of the various agencies (Bullock et al, 2013).
Strengths of the Homeland Security.
Homeland Security has a variety of state agencies that are managed under one umbrella and this in itself makes the communication protocol simple and easy. In addition DHS helps in acreation of framework for the inter-agencies’ information. This makes Homeland Security very easy to attack terrorists by tracking their plots as well as movement. When this happens it makes it easy to secure the borders and the interior for the safety of the entire America thus making the citizens to feel at peace. Moreover, Homeland Security has a very strong regional management. It does not manage its myriad tasks from one corner or in its capital city. DHS has ten regional offices that handle the issues that arise around the country. By so doing, it creates opportunities for jobs because these many offices need employees. Homeland Security is well ahead of the activities that are happening within the country. For example, they know what is being done and what might happen in southern and northwestern region of the country. As a result, they train workers and employees to handle these issues; southern offices are trained on hurricane management and the Northwest on in port security. Homeland Security has a strong opinion and it has an extensive network of security created countrywide to combat the domestic and international terrorism (Chertoff & Project Muse,2009).
Weaknesses of Homeland Security:
Homeland security seems to be very over tasked because it has so many duties to undertake. These duties range from monitoring the airport security to ensuring the border security as well as national disaster response. For example, when Hurricane Katrina took place in Louisiana in the year 2006 it was criticized on how it handled this disaster because it did not have the personnel who could handle those events professionally. In addition, though specified for border security, the management of borders was criticized in 2008 while the government officials conducted an assessment of its effectiveness. They found out that it panders the anti-immigration groups and had a very inefficient security policy. Homeland Security is too big and consumes too much of the country’s revenue. It has over two hundred thousand employees who need to be paid and trained using the countries resources. For example, in the year 2008 only there were $15 billion that were discovered in the failed contracts of various projects due. This suggests that there is poor management in the organization (Chertoff & Project Muse, 2009).
Threats and vulnerabilities:
Homeland Security is faced with future threats which might come from small groups which include the cyber attacks which aim at harming larger group of people. Al Qaeda is still a national security threat. Research conducted by Michael Hayden former director of National Security Agencies shows that though Al-Qaida was so much reduced to very small group it is gaining momentum and so it remains a threat. In addition, terrorists and criminals are finding some ways to aces the US cyber security and so the Homeland Security has to find the resources in order to bear the civilian cyber security challenges.
Homeland is venerable because it is experiencing militarization fear and it is faced by some loss of privacy so the threats maybe foreign, national, military or civilian. Homeland securities have to work more on its resources to gain much cover up for any threat that can arise in future. Even though they have dealt with these threats before does not give them any guarantee that they might be able to combat and so they remain vulnerable (Bullock et al, 2013).
The influence of crime and criminology
The theories of crime and criminal behavior influence the policies and procedures within the criminal justice system. The policy mandated and initiated by the Homeland Security help to develop a critical thinking in the state which enables them to form a policy that directs how the criminals will be dealt with; in return helping to instill fear for the citizens who might think of committing crimes. Homeland Security is an example of how criminal justice system response to threats and crises. Therefore, it influences the crime and criminology for it highlights on international and domestic terrorism and practically shows how to respond and prevent the terroristic actions. It also shows the purpose and practice of law. Homeland security shows that the terrorist factions differ ideologically and in structural composition and so its goals and objectives is to spread fear by utilizing overt criminal methods in achieving political goals.
Particularly the terrorist activities of recent years focus on uses the illegal means to incite the emotions of fear, anxiety and anger by attacking the civilian targets. Therefore, homeland’s security is so much involved in the local and federal law enforcement by employing its policy by using the community-policing principles. This is relevant in national and global issues for it helps to combat crime in the interior and externally for every person is taught to be responsible and accountable and so have to liaise with the Homeland Security to help fight crime and terrorism in the country (Chertoff & Project Muse,2009).
Homeland Security has so much influence in the crime and criminology of United States for it is very much involved on the global issues. The Criminal justice and Homeland Security Studies program is the one that covers the students the facilities and the environment that they need to acquire the tools for the career of law. It expands the law enforcement for law students for they are taught how to communicate effectively and deal with the criminal activities that might be happening in the country while on the field. Most importantly, Homeland Security helps its employees and law students in the entire country to improve the understanding of the criminal justice system and how it responds to threats and crises. By so doing, it continues to enlighten them more and help them to deal fundamentally with criminal activities in a very effective way. They are also taught about ethical and moral issues inherent in the criminal justice system. This is very essential and applicable in national and global issues for it helps the employees and those aspiring to work in law enforcement fields to know how to behave and act on different situation under different circumstances (Morag, 2013).
Homeland Security has so much to offer to the people of United States and the whole world. This is because its policies can be applicable everywhere especially in the countries that are experiencing terrorist attacks and other crimes. In addition homeland security policy helps the researchers and other organizations and agencies to question the manner in which the local government deals with the safety and protection issues of the citizens. We have seen the strengths, weaknesses, threats and vulnerabilities of Homeland security which has revealed to us the impeding internal and external threats; homeland security is very alert and willing to apply a non-military network and utilize the community policing policy to counter attack. However, the weaknesses of Homeland Security are still a concern and the question remains how aggressive will Homeland Security be while dealing with the future threats?