2. Explain Some Of The Major Reasons For Sub-Urbanization In The United States, As Discussed In Class. (Pay Special Attention To The 1950s And Beyond)

Urbanization and suburbanization

Sub-urbanization involves shifting of population from urban areas in central lands to rural areas. Urbanization is the migration and redistribution of people from rural country life to urban areas including cities and towns. Urbanization led to emergence of new cities and towns occupied by people living and working in towns. American urbanization is influenced by industrial revolution as workers migrate to manufacturing centers in towns to seek for jobs in factories. New technologies under construction, usage of steel in urbanization as well as in the transport and communication sector, increase in numbers of entrepreneurs and inventions are major causes of migration to towns and cities (Urbanization in America).Increase of efficiency in agriculture prompted people to move to urban areas after rural displacements Tammaru, Kulu, and Kask 212).

Explain some of the major reasons for sub-urbanization in the United States, as discussed in class. (Pay special attention to the 1950s and beyond)

Suburbanization describes growth of major cities as well as sudden extreme relocation of people from urban areas into suburbs. Migration comes in search of adequate houses, engaging in agriculture and develop industries in rural areas. Other people move to rural areas after losing their jobs in cities and others aim at reducing high costs of living experienced in urban centers (Tammaru, Kulu, and Kask 213). Suburbanization is caused by push and pull factors. Push factors force people to leave their original homes in urban areas and move to suburban areas. Pull factors attract people to suburbs. Examples of push factors are tiredness with city life and willingness to live out of town. Others complain that cities are overpopulated, over polluted and dirty. White flight was especially experienced in mid-twentieth century where there was great increase of suburbs. A majority of whites migrate from urban regions having mixed communities to suburban areas with racially homogenous persons. Pull factors include increase in space in rural areas, closeness to nature and lower prices of houses and commodities. Insurance policies favored suburban areas.

Why planning as discussed in the textbook and in class. (Political Aspects, roles, types and styles,  local agencies, etc.)

Planning of urban centers assists leaders to achieve growth through policies and commands developed in orderly manner. Developed is sustainable to bring differences. The environment is protected by use of balanced demands, service investments, and infrastructure. Economic development is distributed equally to attain set objectives through collaboration of local governments and private sectors. Leaders use urban planning to transform their vision and implement it through provide d space. It assist to engage appropriate stakeholders in the growth of the city.

Planned cities have visions and frameworks on how to achieve it. The framework has centralized command and control of efforts and needs of people living in cities. The future is well prepared for since the leaders realize challenges and take advantage of opportunities. Moreover, they manage risks, which may hinder them long-term goals. Planning ensures proper selection of local leaders who assist in solving emerging challenges and ongoing projects that match with set goals. Pressing issues are easily identified through planning. Available resources are identified. Housing, employment, safety, and accessibility of resources is considered a priority through planning. Urban gateway asserts that cities require urban planning to impact on urban economy, allow cities to create long-lasting relationship with citizens and stakeholders, and attain economies of scale. Urban planning generates credibility of community plans as well as maintain consistency of messages.

Understanding of Kevin Lynch’s design ideas. How do planners use this?

Kevin Andrew Lynch is a planner from America and an author. Lynch explained that city users understood their environment through consistent ways that form mental maps. He listed five elements such as paths, sidewalks, streets used by humans to travel. Edges, boundaries like walls, shorelines, and buildings. Districts are large enough to be recognized. Nodes are focal points and intersections in the city while landmarks include identifiable objects like external reference points. Lynch argues that each person has their own unique individual picture of the city while many people hold series of public images. The images are required for easier operation in human beings. Various types of environments are approximated by use of images made in the minds of human beings living within them. Observers through careful selection, organization, select pictures formed in the mind and endowment of the meaning derived. As a result, there is a difference between what observers report.

1893 World’s Columbian Exposition in planning history (lecture and in the textbook)

The world’s Columbian exposition was a celebration of 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus after arriving in the new world in 1492.According to Garland, the affair was a cultural celebration in America, which marked the turning of the century. More than 27 million visitors were considered hosts of the event at the time. The Columbian exposition fair was capitalistic and included fundraisers such as G.B Shaw. Main Agendas included construction of new buildings. Burnham was the leader of the firm, which was involved in skyscraping. Burnham made accurate choices designed exhibition halls, hired sculptors to decorate grounds and employ a good color scheme. The construction fair hired more than 40,000 workers who were skilled (1-5).

 Social aspects of planning and why are they important to the planning process.

Urban planning helps reduce poverty among citizens, crimes, provides affordable housing, and builds extra houses to accommodate more people. The image in urban centers is improved encouraging people to live comfortably in urban centers. Urban poverty is reduced as well as introducing ways of preventing risks. Environmental department in cities plans ways of helping people adapt to climate change and mitigate risks. Human settlements schemes are founded to assist in management of human beings and their settlements. The lives of slum dwellers is improved through implementation of policies concerned with housing, reduction of risks, governance, and sustainability (Tosics 1-6).

Way Stations

Way stations is concerned with network rail and is concerned with the design of new and existing buildings, way stations offer safe and accessible station environments to the society. It is required to operate, maintain, and construct railways as a way of managing assets. Appropriate station design principles include being accessible, delight, inclusive and safe for use by all human beings.

Describe NIMBY phenomenon

NIMBY phenomenon is an acronym for ‘not in my backyard’.it is an opposition of projects that are likely to happen in the neighboring residential area. The opposing respondents are referred as nimbies since they oppose hazardous developmental projects. However, NIMBY kills developmental projects such as those aiming to provide clean water and energy. Projects such as wind energy are opposed since the community fears reduction of property values. In addition, people fight beneficial environmental projects, which are to be built in their environment. As a result, NIMBY is a real threat to clean and safe environment. They pose a challenge when trying to come up with a solution. Creation of jobs to people involved with developmental projects of availing clean energy and water is difficult in presence of NIMBY.

Comprehensive plan in local areas: what is it, why is it significant for local planning?

A comprehensive plan in local areas involves the local authority who participate in decision making by following stages of planning local areas. Department for communities and local government asserts that advice and assistance is provided to community organization. Local authorities engage themselves in local planning by becoming proactive in offering information to local communities on environmental planning. It fulfils its duties in time and take appropriate decisions. They set clear and transparent timetable while making decisions to be followed by local wishing to engage in planning neighborhood. Moreover, the local authority engages with the community to complete local planning process. Council executives take decisions dealing with planning of local areas. They delegate their members to discharge authority duties(1-2).

A comprehensive plan in local areas must include goals and objectives, which are guides to development and social well-being of local jurisdictions; they indicate the functioning of the community. It must include land use to indicate patterns of growth and maps of development. Targets for varied types of developments, areas of prioritization and preservation are offered. Transportation is well outlined in the plan describing elements and patterns to be followed. Transportation facilities such as bicycle, amenities for pedestrian, transit roads, and their development is outlined. Community facilities such as character, location, types of buildings, facilities, lands among other public facilities are described. Mineral resources and their extraction are described together with future goals in mining. Guidelines for development are issued and growth areas (Department for communities and local government 2-5).

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