How is it possible for therapists to understand and work with their clients psychological patterns when they only see them for one hour a week?

Essay Questions – Autumn Semester 2018

Psychology and Counselling (PCO)

 Models of Counselling (PCO020N250Y)


All written work should be submitted electronically (Turn-it-in) on the relevant Moodle site by 2pm on the deadline day.  Any work submitted after this will be marked late. Any work submitted more than one week after the deadline will be marked at 0% in the absence of an approved extension or mitigating circumstances. 

Late work: Strict procedures for handling late work in the university.  If you wish to apply for an extension or ask for deferral on the grounds of mitigating circumstances you must apply at least 48 hours before the deadline through the Mit Circs portal (available on student zone) and in the right hand column of the Models moodle page.  Extensions may be granted for up to two weeks.  Longer deferrals of work on the grounds of mitigating circumstances may be granted in more serious cases and will require documentary evidence to support a claim. If you need support with the procedures surrounding late work please contact Jade Henry-Woolford in the admin office on x3171 or

If work is submitted late without either an agreed extension or deferral the grade will be capped at 40% – this is now university policy and no exceptions will be made.  Work submitted more than one week late with no mit circs or extension application will receive 0%

Assessment of this module is by one academic essay of 2000 words due in by:

Essay Questions – Choose One

  1. The Therapeutic Relationship

How is it possible for therapists to understand and work with their clients’ psychological patterns when they only see them for one hour a week? Explore this question looking at the therapeutic relationship, current connections in the client’s life and their early relational environment?

  • Freud

“Freud’s controversial views on sexuality, women and his over-focus on the libidinal drives mean that his contribution to psychotherapeutic theory and practice is dangerously over-rated”.  Discuss.  

  • Jung

Jung claimed that working therapeutically could enable clients to transform their neurosis into an individuated self. Evaluate key aspects of his theory and therapeutic techniques for their capacity to fulfil this goal.

  • Klein

Explore and evaluate the contribution that Melanie Klein made to object relations theory and also to more contemporary psychodynamic thinking.

  • The Feminine in Psychoanalysis

Compare and contrast Horney’s concept of ‘womb envy’ and Freud’s formulation of ‘penis envy’ in personality development.

  • Harry Stack Sullivan

Is it correct to claim Stack Sullivan’s work as the American version of Object Relations? If so why?  

  • The British School of Object Relations

The British School of Object Relations overturned several central planks of classical psychoanalytic theory.  In what ways did they do this?  Why does this have such a profound effect on the way Object Relations therapists work with their clients?   

  • Kohut

Explore and evaluate Kohut’s contribution to our therapeutic understanding of narcissistic injury and shame.

  • Character Styles

What would a therapist need to understand about the childhood experiences of a masochistic client?  What change work would they need to engage in?  Compare and contrast this to one other character style. 

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