Write an analysis of the beliefs of B.F. Skinner (educational philosopher). As a philosophical analysis, the assignment should present ideas in a persuasive manner.

Write an analysis of the beliefs of B.F. Skinner (educational philosopher). As a philosophical analysis, the assignment should present ideas in a persuasive manner. – present the cultural context of the individual, analyze the various aspects of the philosopher’s beliefs and actions, present critiques in opposition to the individual, persuasively convey why this individual’s ideas and actions are relevant, and relate implications that may be applicable to today’s field of education. – discuss what the individual believed to be the purpose and outcome of education. What long-range impact did the individual hope to make on individuals and on society? – Though your primary focus will be on beliefs, you may briefly discuss the practices and methods the philosopher implemented. Length: This paper is to be at least 1,300 words in length from the introductory paragraph to the conclusion.

This does not count the title page, abstract, or reference pages. Citations and References: Cite at least five sources throughout the paper and list them on the reference page. Structure: Paper should include the following elements listed below. PLEASE FOLLOW THIS 9 SECTION STRUCTURE FORMAT! 1. Title Page • Pagination: In APA, all pages are numbered. The title page should be page 1. • Title: The title should not be the name of the assignment (i.e., Philosopher Analysis). It should be a phrase drawn from the thesis statement in the introductory paragraph. It should provide the reader a hint of the topic and the main idea supported throughout the paper and may be phrased in a clever, unique fashion. The first letter of all words should be capitalized except for articles (e.g. a, an, the), conjunctions (e.g., and, but), and short prepositions (e.g., of, about), unless they appear as the first word, which is always capitalized. Center and bold your title and position it near the middle of the page or slightly above the middle.

• Other Information on Title Page: Position the items below in the bottom third of the page. o Candidate Name o Course# o University Name o Date 2. Abstract: The heading of the abstract should be centered and in bold font. • Place the abstract after the title page and before the introduction. • Do not indent the first line. • The abstract is a brief, comprehensive summary of the contents of the paper. It should present the main idea, main supporting ideas, and main conclusion/implication. 3. Introduction: Do not use the word “Introduction” as a heading for this section. Per APA, it is optional to insert the title again as the heading for the introduction. If you choose to do so, it should be in bold, centered font and should be capitalized the same way as on the title page. • The purpose of the introductory paragraph is different from the abstract. Do not simply copy the abstract.

• In this section, introduce your thesis statement that will be developed throughout the paper. It is the main idea you are presenting. All other ideas will serve to support the thesis statement. • It is best to place the thesis statement at the end of the introduction. It is typically one or two sentences that serve as a transition into the rest of the paper. • Below are some tips to help avoid common errors in writing a strong introductory paragraph: o Focus on a simple introduction of the thesis statement. o Ensure that sentences flow in a logical progression from one to the other. o Keep it simple with only the necessary concept(s) to introduce the thesis statement. o Avoid including so many distracting facts that the reader is unclear what the thesis statement is. Save most supporting facts for the body of the manuscript. o Avoid fragmented, disjointed sentences that read like bulleted lists. 4. Background and Cultural Context: Centered in bold with all major words capitalized, enter the first Level 1 heading of your paper. (Level 2 headings are unnecessary for this short of a paper.) Use the words “Background and Cultural Context.”

• This brief section situates the individual you have chosen so the reader understands the setting in which the ideas developed. This is not an extensive biography but is a succinct presentation of events or circumstances that may have influenced the development of the individual’s thoughts and/or actions. • Include transitions that build a logical progression from the thesis statement in the introductory paragraph into the background and cultural context. • Length of this section should be no more than 10% to 20% of the total manuscript. Anything longer distorts the main intent of the paper. 5. Philosophy of Education: The heading for this section is also a Level 1 heading, which means that—just like the previous heading—it should be centered and in bold with all major words capitalized. This is not your own personal philosophy of education. It is a presentation of the ideas of the philosopher you have selected.

• Ensure that this section flows smoothly and logically from the previous one. • This is the core part of the paper where you expound more specifically on the thesis statement. • Consider what this educational thinker perceived as the main purpose or outcome of education. Focus on the individual’s “why” of education—the long-range impact he or she believed schools and learning should make on individuals and on society.

• Depending on the beliefs of your selected individual, you may address various aspects of philosophy. The questions below are suggestions for you to consider: o How did he or she view the needs of individuals and of society? o What was his or her view of the nature of the learner and how did that play into other beliefs? o Was the individual motivated by concerns that were metaphysical, supernatural, pragmatic, political, etc.? o What knowledge, skills, or dispositions were of most value to be included in the curriculum? • Save the individual’s actions, practices, and process (i.e., the “how”) of education for the next section. In this current section, state what the person believed.

• If a philosophical label clearly applies to this individual, address it and describe it (e.g., idealism, realism, scholasticism, perennialism, essentialism, pragmatism, progressivism, existentialism, postmodernism, critical pedagogy, socialism, Marxism, etc. See the course textbook Appendix for more information on this.). If not, you may attempt to situate the individual’s ideas among similar philosophies; be careful, however, not to speculate if you are unsure. Some philosophers are difficult to label. 6. Theory to Practice: This Level 1 heading should be centered and in bold. Use the words “Theory to Practice.”

• This section should flow smoothly from the previous one. • Some educational thinkers were such philosophers that it is difficult to describe what actions they took other than to write or to philosophize. If this is the case, address the actions others took as they were influenced by the educational thinker. For instance, Rousseau’s ideas influenced the actions of Pestalozzi, Froebel, Piaget, and others. • The questions below are suggestions for you to consider: o How did the individual believe learners come to know truth? What causes learning to occur? What was the thinker’s epistemological beliefs? o What movements, organizations, or schools did the individual initiate? o What pedagogical practices did the individual implement or encourage others to use? o What did he or she hope to accomplish by using these strategies? 7.

Perspectives on Diversity: This Level 1 heading should be centered in bold. Use the words “Perspectives on Diversity.” This section should reflect the most significant aspect of the philosopher’s thoughts and approaches to diversity in society and/or individuals. If the philosopher’s ideas do not address diversity, discuss that in this section. 8. Critical Analysis: This Level 1 heading should be formatted the same as the previous ones. Use the words “Critical Analysis.” This section should reflect the most significant criticisms about the person’s work. Indicate who the thinker’s opponents and supporters were and distinguish elements of opposing ideas and/or actions. Another aspect of this section is for you to analyze the educational thinker’s ideas and actions through a biblical worldview lens.

• Focus on situating the individual’s ideas and actions among those of others. These “others” may be contemporaries who lived during or near the time of your philosopher. They may also be historians, philosophers, or cultural analysts who came after him or her. • Part of the critical analysis may address the thinker’s views (or the lack thereof) on societal and individual diversity as discussed in the previous section. • To critique means to convey both opposition and support with rationale for both. Therefore, your analysis should include those who opposed and also those who supported this individual and should provide an explanation of why they did so. 9. Implications and Conclusions: Use the same Level 1 formatting as you have done with your other headings above and simply enter the words “Implications and Conclusions” in centered, bolded font.

Although your conclusion should include concepts from the thesis statement in the introduction and should have some alignment with the title of the paper, you should not simply restate the thesis. Wrap up the paper by emphasizing your main idea and draw a clear conclusion. Because you will be addressing both implications and conclusions in this section, it may be a bit longer than a typical conclusion section. You may extend the conclusion to three paragraphs or longer as appropriate. The questions below are suggestions for you to consider: • What might current educators, policymakers, or other stakeholders glean from this person? • What do you observe in the field of education based on your analysis of this philosopher? • What aspect of this individual’s thoughts and actions resonate with you most and why? Remember, you can do this persuasively without using first person pronouns (e.g., “Perhaps the most relevant idea of Comenius was . . .”;

“Most significantly, today’s educational system would benefit from Booker T. Washington’s notion that . . .”; “If applied by today’s classroom teachers, Calvin’s idea that . . .” • At what point do you disagree or conflict with the educational thinker? Consider how you can confidently convey this by avoiding first-person pronouns (e.g., “Dewey was perhaps misguided in his approach to . . .”; “An inconsistency in Freire’s theory is that . . .”; “Du Bois’ may have been incorrect in that . . .” According to the APA manual, first-person pronouns are permitted, but they should be used only when the writer must describe a personal action taken or an event the writer experienced. Beliefs and opinions are best conveyed in strong, declarative statements. Therefore, avoid statements such as “I think that,” “I believe,” “for me,” “to me,” etc. PLEASE USE IF NEED BE THE THREE SOURCES FROM the attached “Educational Philosopher AB 3 sources” as 3 of the 5 needed citations/references. Or can use any five peer reviewed sources

Replace This Title: Ensure It Aligns with Your Thesis Statement

Author Note

. Sample

I have no known conflict of interest to disclose.

Abstract

Do not indent the abstract. Per APA, this is a brief, comprehensive summary of the contents of the manuscript. It may range in length from 150 to 250 words in length.

Keywords: main words, primary, necessary, search terms

Insert the Same Title Here as Is on Your Title Page

Begin your introduction here. The purpose of the introductory paragraph is to introduce your thesis statement. Typically, the thesis statement is the last sentence of this one-paragraph introduction and serves as a transition into the rest of the paper. The thesis statement is the main idea of the paper—the main point you are making. Keep the introductory paragraph simple; do not overload it with so many concepts that it distracts from the thesis statement. All sentences in the introduction should flow in a logical progression from one to the other. The sentences should not read like a bulleted list.

Background and Cultural Context

See assignment directions regarding what to enter here. Ensure that each paragraph includes a clear topic sentence and that there is a logical flow of progression from one paragraph to another.

Philosophy of Education

See assignment directions regarding what to enter here. Ensure that each paragraph includes a clear topic sentence and that there is a logical flow of progression from one paragraph to another.

Theory to Practice

See assignment directions regarding what to enter here. Ensure that each paragraph includes a clear topic sentence and that there is a logical flow of progression from one paragraph to another.

Perspectives on Diversity

See assignment directions regarding what to enter here. Ensure that each paragraph includes a clear topic sentence and that there is a logical flow of progression from one paragraph to another.

Critical Analysis

See assignment directions regarding what to enter here. Ensure that each paragraph includes a clear topic sentence and that there is a logical flow of progression from one paragraph to another.

Implications and Conclusions

See assignment directions regarding what to enter here. Ensure that each paragraph includes a clear topic sentence and that there is a logical flow of progression from one paragraph to another.

References

Notice how the examples below have a hanging indention. Everything in APA is to be double spaced, including the abstract, lengthy quotations, and the reference list. Nothing is single spaced.

Authorlastname, A. B. (2019). Book title in italics with only the first word and proper nouns and proper adjectives, like Christian, capitalized: If there is a subtitle, the first word is capitalized. Publisher.

Authorlastname, A. B. (2019). Article title in regular font with only the first word and proper nouns and proper adjectives, like European, capitalized: Subtitles may or may not be used. Journal Titles and Volume Numbers Are Italicized, 15(2), 41-50. https://doi.org/10.1037/rev0000126

Philosopher Analysis Grading Rubric

CriteriaLevels of Achievement
Content 80%AdvancedProficientDevelopingNot Present
Thesis Statement & Coherence 20%28-30 points Title, abstract, introduction, thesis statement, and conclusion are well-constructed, are coherently aligned, and are supported throughout the body of the paper. 25-27 points A thesis statement is introduced; it aligns with topics in the title, body of the paper, and conclusion.1-24 points The thesis statement is poorly introduced, is vaguely stated, and/or does not align with the title and/or body of the paper. 0 pts Not present
Background & Context 20%28-30 points Thorough contextual background is presented that is directly relevant to the ideas and actions of the educational thinker.25-27 points Basic contextual background is presented that is mostly relevant to the ideas and actions of the educational thinker.1-24 points Contextual background is inadequate or is, to some degree, irrelevant to the ideas and actions of the educational thinker.0 pts Not present
Analysis 40%  55-60 points PHILOSOPHY: Conveys a clear understanding of the philosopher’s beliefs on the purpose and outcome of education. PRACTICE: Thoroughly describes an instructional practice/teaching model, explaining the purpose/vision for why it was implemented. DIVERSITY: Addresses clearly and integrates effectively the consideration of diversity in the philosopher’s overall beliefs with implications for individuals and society. CRITIQUE: Identifies and compares opposing and other supporting views both of contemporaries and of analysists who came after the philosopher in light of a biblical worldview. Implications for current educational practice and conclusions are synthesized, properly representing the philosophy supported throughout the manuscript.50-54 points PHILOSOPHY: The philosopher’s purpose and outcome of education is outlined, and a basic notion of the philosopher’s theoretical and metaphysical aspects are introduced. PRACTICE: Describes a basic instructional practice/teaching model, explaining the purpose/vision for why it was implemented. DIVERSITY: Addresses the consideration of diversity in the overall philosophical argument but may not effectively relate it to the overall philosophical beliefs or to implications for individuals and/or society. CRITIQUE: Identifies and explains opposing or supporting views of contemporaries or of analysists who came after the philosopher but may not have done so in light of a biblical worldview. Conclusion reiterates main points of the paper.1-49 points PHILOSOPHY: The section reports basic beliefs held by the philosopher, but they may not be conveyed with clarity and/or are not directly related to the purpose or outcome of education. PRACTICE: Instructional philosophy/teaching model is vague at points and/or does not explain the purpose for implementation. DIVERSITY: Diversity issues or the lack thereof are not properly addressed with implications to the individual and/or society. CRITIQUE: Identifies opposing or supporting views of contemporaries or of analysists who came after the philosopher but may not have done so in light of a biblical worldview; and/or a sufficient explanation of other views is vague or lacks development; and/or conclusion does not align with the introduction, thesis statement, title, and body of the paper.0 pts Not present
Structure 20%AdvancedProficientDevelopingNot present
APA, Mechanics, Length 20%  28-30 points Paper is free of mechanical and APA errors. 100% of the length requirement is met.  25-27 points Few mechanical and/or APA errors exist. Length of the paper is met by 90% to 99%.1-24 points Several mechanical and/or APA errors exist. Length of the paper is met by less than 90%.0 pts Not present

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