Even though the U.S. and the Soviet Union started the cold war on the difference of ideology, it was experienced in many nations across the world. According to Dunbabin (2014), Darnton (2014), and Garthoff (2015), the ideologies of the U.S. and the Soviet Union after the Second World War led to mistrust and various propaganda than anything, which influenced people’s thoughts. In this view, most of the existing sources does not address the cause of the cold war in Cuba. Thus, there is little understanding of the cause of the cold war in Cuba. The research question was whether the rift between US-Cuba led to the cold war in Cuba. After an extensive research, I found that the poor relationship between the US-Cuban in Castro’s administration led to the cold war.
The cold war is perceived to be a description of the relationship between the U.S. and the Soviet Union. The cold war in Cuba is believed to be an extension of the rift between the U.S. and Cuba. During the cold war, the U.S. and Cuba attacked one another. There exist various beliefs from researchers about the cause of the cold war in Cuba. Each of them generates a set of discrete claims about the causes of the cold war, such as Cuba joining the soviet, and the different ideologies of the U.S. and Soviet (Darnton, 2014). However, little research has been done to understand the cause of the cold war in Cuba, especially by focusing on the US-Cuba relationship. It is anticipated that the U.S. had an interest in Cuba even before the cold war in Cuba.
Cold war in Cuba was evident through the Cuban Missile Crisis and the series of attacks between the U.S. and Cuba. The cause of this war has been attributed to the rift that existed between the U.S. and the Soviet Union. This is because Castro joined the Soviet Union and adopted their ideology. The Soviet Union wanted to spread its ideology of communism worldwide, which was against the U.S., who believed in democracy. While the reason of difference in ideology between the U.S. and Soviet have been captured in most literatures, little has been done to ascertain the cause of the cold war in Cuba. In this view, I would like to determine whether the U.S. and Cuba’s widening relationship caused the cold war in Cuba? Besides, the other research questions that I intend to investigate are;
- Were the U.S. and Soviet ideologies at play during the cold war in Cuba?
- Why was Cuba an interest for the U.S. and the Soviet Union?
The goal of this research was to understand the main cause of the cold war in Cuba. There is little knowledge on the cause of the cold war. In light of this, the goal was to determine whether the rift between the U.S. and Cuba was a factor for the cold war. People need to understand that the cold war in Cuba was not just about the U.S. and the Soviet Union ideologies as speculated. For many years, Cuba was a country that had a positive and close relationship with the U.S. Cuban entertainment such as casinos and beaches were American playgrounds, and the American corporations were managing most of the factories as well as lands in Cuba during the 1940s and 1950. Therefore, there is need to understand the cause of the cold war between them.
A research methodology is a process used to collect information to understand the subject of research. In this research, a literature review was be used to collect information about the subject. First, I reviewed various literatures on the cause of the cold war in Cuba. This offered an overview of all the perceived causes recorded about the cause of the cold war. Secondly, I reviewed the sources on the chronology of the relationship between the U.S. and Cuba over the period. The information was vital in understanding the other reasons that could have led to the cold war.
Dunbabin (2014) provides an overview of the two major players of the cold war and their allies. He takes into account the importance of players beyond the U.S. and the Soviet Union. The allies of the two superpowers during the cold war were used as weapons and could be the reason for the stalemate like constant fights experienced in Cuba. Similar to Dunbabin (2014), Garthoff’s outlines the geopolitical causes of the Cold War between the two states. He provides the manner with which the ideology of the Soviet leaders brought tensions and shaded their perceptions of the U.S., its intentions, as well as actions. The Soviet leaders used their ideologies to fight the U.S. during the cold war. In addition, Darnton (2014) believes that the rivalry and politics in Latin America played a major role in the cold war. Any country supporting the Soviet Union was an enemy of the U.S., and the one supporting the U.S. was an enemy of the Soviet Union.
Chase (2016), there was a strong relationship between the U.S. and Cuba after defeating Spain and gaining its independence. The intervention of the U.S. in the conflict in 1898 had helped the defeat of Spain and reserved for the U.S. a special mandate in influencing the future of Cuba. From that moment, the U.S. has facilitated the leadership of Cuba and managed most of its corporations. The American corporation managed most of the lands and factories that were in Cuba under the pro-America President Batista. Thus, the interest of the U.S. in Cuba was evidence of its appetite for expansion. In addition, McMillar (2015) provides an overview of the relationship between the U.S. and Cuba. Pre-revolution in Cuba was marked with Americans holding heavy economic interests in the Latin country, especially in the sugar industry. However, the relationship changed with the introduction of the new leadership by Castro after overthrowing Batista.
The relationship of the U.S. can be traced back to 1898 before Cuba got its independence from Spain. However, it was between 1940 and the 1950s under the leadership of Batista, that Cuba and the U.S. had a good relationship. Things changed when Castro took over Cuba as the prime minister after overthrowing Batista. Thereafter, Castro nationalized millions of acres of land held by the Americans and gave the people of Cuba. The move destroyed the relationship between America and Cuba. The U.S. was now open to retaliation. The U.S. understood that sugar was the main commodity that the Cubans relied on. Therefore, the U.S. cut of 95% of sugar to the American market was a blow to the Cubans (Chase, 2016). The move increased tensions as both countries retaliated in punishing one another. Castro went ahead to nationalize the U.S. investment in Cuba. The U.S., then, began a dirty war against Cuba by destroying its sugar plantation. Since the presence of Castro as the prime minister of Cuba was a threat to the U.S., they decided to find a way to overthrow him from the throne. The threat to being overthrown by the U.S. and constant attacks American on Cuba pushed Castro to seek help from the Soviet who was ready to help.
Findings and discussion
Based on the information from the literature review and case study, there are various reasons for the cold war in Cuba. To begin with, the aspect of ideology contributed to the cold war between the U.S. and the Soviet Union. It is possible that the allies of the two could be dragged to the same war. However, in the case of the cold war in Cuba, ideology came at play later when Castro joined the Soviet Union. From the case study, Chase (2016) and McMillar (2015), the relationship between the U.S. and Cuba from independence played a major role in the cold war in Cuba. The U.S. involvement in the Cuban attack was to be a secret because they did not want the U.N. to see its involvement in the attack after the end of World War II. As shown in the case study, the cold war between the two nations was a terrifying moment because they were attacking one another indirectly.
The growing rift between the U.S. and Cuba played a major role in the cold war in Cuba. The cold war in Cuba started when Castro overthrew Batista, who was pro-America. Castro altered the relationship by nationalizing the lands and corporations owned by U.S. citizens. The U.S. retaliated by a 95% cut of its sugar market. There was growing tension between the U.S. and Cuba. Both nations were worried about each other because they were not aware of the number of people attacking them or the type of weapons the other were using. Thus, before Castro sought help from the Soviet Union, there was an existing tension and war between the U.S. and Cuba. It is apparent that Cuba joining the Soviet Union only widened the rift, but it was not the main cause of the cold war.