Bacchi Framework

Bacchi framework, also known as “what is the problem represented to be.” It provides a different option of conceptualizing policy. While other frameworks tend to treat the policy as self-evident, the framework faults the privileging of all aspects of expertise and knowledge. For the framework, approaches to policy research are inherently political and need to be recognized as such. The framework originates from a feminist understanding that each issue influences the lives of women (MaCKEnZiE & BaCChi, 2010). She seeks to shift focus to policies as it comprising of competing representations of political issues by majoring on the discourse that surrounds them. Thus, it is an approach that provides details on the conceptualization of policies.

According to Bacchi Framework, research is not descriptive of a challenge or issue; it’s always political (Bacchi & Bacchi, 2010). The link between participation, knowledge, and power is pivotal and results in critical questions based on not only what aspect of knowledge is considered significant for policy operations but also the one who may speak legitimately. The framework foregrounds and calls for the need to evaluate how dynamics of power work in policymaking operations, particularly given that the historical tendency to marginalize those from influenced society. Most of the information that is revealed through policy creation.

Also, the framework serves as a key interruption to the assumptions that challenges are fixed and uncontroversial beginning points for policy development and it reminds people that the vague idea of the challenge and its partners the solution are heavily laden with focus (Kihl, Schull & Shaw, 2016). Bacchi framework assists to make sense of competing policy models by displaying how various framing and knowledge lead to different policy feedbacks and solutions from different contexts. For instance, questions 3 and six can be used to evaluate a policy, especially by considering what happened in the past to the one in the current policy.

The mainstream policymakers may be skeptical on using such an approach that can appear to offer more complexity than clarity, but a deeper knowledge of the political nature of policy framings is important to assist make sure that the most appropriate response is given (Lindblom, 2017). Bacchi’s framework assists make sense of fraught policy areas and advanced policymakers to decipher and understand the political aspects of different forms of evidence and advocacy, and how it fits with various theoretical and ideological point of video (Caetano et al., 2013). It has important implications for activist and advocacy firms by exposing what kind of evidence and understandings are likely to achieve traction in a given setting.

In the Bacchi framework, the interrogation of problem representations aims to create space for reflecting more widely on how aspects are governed rather than help-policy analyst to provide useful advice (Bacchi & Eveline, 2010). The assumption is that all the actors in a power relation are policy subjects and are involved in a heavily contested process of making policy. It offers a series of six questions to evaluate problem representation in the framework. The simplicity of the framework means that its use is broad and without the need to get involved in a complicated theory. 

Although the framework uses a set up to evaluate a challenge representation, it cautious of the prescriptive and restrictive aspect of a model and of using one in discourse evaluation (Mattheis, 2017). The model is not a prescriptive proposal but instead a series of questions that motivates critical evaluation of policy that is consistent. 


Bacchi, C. L., & Bacchi, C. (2010). Mainstreaming politics: Gendering practices and feminist theory. University of Adelaide Press.

Bacchi, C. L. (2010). Taking problems apart. Women, gender, and politics: A reader, 263-266.

Bacchi, C. A., R. O. L., & Eveline, J. O. A. N. (2010). What’s the problem represented to be?. Mainstreaming Politics: Gendering Practices and Feminist Theory, 111.

Caetano, C. R., & Consani, R. L. X, Bacchi, A, Correr, A. B and Santos, MBF (2013).“Influence of different flask systems on tooth displacement and framework misfit in mandibular fixed implant-supported complete dentures.” Journal of Prosthodontic Research, 57(3), 213-218.

Kihl, L. A., Schull, V. D., & Shaw, S. (2016). Introduction and Theoretical Framework. In Gender Politics in US College Athletic Departments (pp. 1-16). Palgrave Pivot, New York.

Lindblom, E. (2017). Reporting on Gender Equality and Diversity: A Discourse Analysis of the GRI Framework for Sustainability Reporting.

MaCKEnZiE, C., & BaCChi, C. (2010). University-public sector research collaboration: Mine space, never mind the gap. Welcome to the electronic edition of Mainstreaming Poli-tics. The book opens with the bookmark panel, and you will see the contents page. Click on this anytime to return to the contents. You can also add your bookmarks., 263.

Mattheis, A. (2017). A mashup of policy tools and CDA as a framework for educational policy inquiry. Critical Policy Studies, 11(1), 57-78.

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