Engineering designs are different from other designs or decorations. They are client motivated. For the product to sell the consumer/user has to be impressed by its design. The designer therefore has to understand what the client wants and the client has therefore to understand what the user needs. This creates a triangular relationship between the designer, the client and the user. The public also play a big role because there opinion affects the user. The client’s and the designer’s opinion may diverge due to the divergent needs of the consumers.
In this chapter engineering design is defined as a thoughtful process for generating designs for devices, systems or projects that attain certain objectives while adhering to the specified constraints. Objectives maybe completely achieved, partially achieved or not achieved at all. On the other hand constraints can be achieved or not achieved. Engineering design entails intelligent process but some tools to realize the creativity are also required. People do think while designing and therefore it is important to have tools to support that thinking.
The relationship between form and function is important in understanding creative aspects of a design. If we can deduce the functions a device is to perform then we can easily come up with the form in which it should be. There are criteria to evaluate a successful design which arise from the questioning process. Translating the desires of the client into objectives on the device being designed, establishing a standard to gauge if the design will have met the client’s needs, establishing functions that a successful design will perform and establishing the requirements of the design’s functions as per engineering.
A good design doesn’t come easily. Engineering design problems are ill structured because there are no formulas to get there solutions. They are always a series of open ended questions. Articulating skills in design is a hard task thus making it hard to teach design. Design is best learned through doing and studying.
Wood and Otto
Product development is different from product design. The first one looks at introducing a new product into the market while the later aims at meeting the need of the users. The two processes however do not encompass manufacturing. Every person has an idea of how something or a product should be. The question is how to realize that imagination. This therefore needs product design.
Deigns are original, adaptive or variant. Original design involves elaborating original solutions for a problem. Adaptive design involves restructuring a known system to fit a changed task. Variant design involves changing the parameters of a known system to suit the needs of the users.
A product design is much more than a mere search for a successful creation, it is based on learning and practice. Every situation gives a different problem thus a different design. A modern product development entails three processes; understanding the opportunity, developing concept and implementing concept. Reverse engineering design is important for products that already exist in the market. This starts with a product already in the market with a vision to satisfy certain consumer needs in the market.it involves prediction of what a product should be.
Product development processes are different. These are system , industrial , suitable for competitive markets, research intensive suitable for products with cycles of a longer time, complex which require various components to be brought together, technical where there is little information that can be obtained from the public. A design theory can help if developed repeatedly. A design theory ensures consistency in the design of the products and improves reliability on a design process.
KN· 奥托 (美), and 伍德 (美). Product design: techniques in reverse engineering and new product development. 清华大学出版社有限公司, 2003.