What risk factors does John have for risk of opioid withdrawal during this hospitalization?

One of the major risk factors of opioid withdrawal is that of muscle ache; this is because the body had dependently adopted to the use of the pain relievers hence withdrawal will result in muscle aches. In addition, profuse sweating of the body, insomnia, development of goose bumps, dilating pupils as well as increased tearing will be other risk factors to which the patient will be exposed to due to the withdrawal of the usage of the opioid drug.

 Is there a stigma connected to being disabled and methadone?

Yes, this is because the patient has to struggle with the social meanings of being disable within a given environment. The stigma that come with disability in a community plays a vital role recovery efforts of the patients as well as mental health during treatment. Adverse stigma may slow the rate of recovery. In addition, usage of methadone come with stigma also because the patient has got to access the drug on a daily basis because relieving their pain daily depends on the use of the drugs. Usage of methadone also comes with social stigma as the patient will think that other people thinks low of them due to their previous addiction to the usage of a particular drug.

Does the nurse need to be concerned about acetaminophen use?

The nurse has to be concerned with the usage of acetaminophen because, in the case of overuse of the patient, it may cause severe liver disease hence its usage must be under prescription by a physician. Acetaminophen is used in most cases to relieve pain in patients and in a time of severe pain, some patients may overdose in seeking quick pain reliever hence the nurse must be concerned with the usage of the drug.

What are the differences in acute and chronic pain?


Acute pain is that which last for a short period but at a time may go up to a week or a month. In addition, acute pain serves as an early warning of a particular disease into the body of a patient. On the other hand, chronic pain will persist in a patient even if the disease has been healed. The pain may get to the nervous system for a long time even up to a year.





Campbell, J. N. (2016). The fifth vital sign revisited. Pain, 157(1), 3-4.

Jarvis, C. (2016). Physical examination & health assessment (7th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Saunders

All Rights Reserved,