Cigarette cause cancer

Jones, M. R., Tellez-Plaza, M., & Navas-Acien, A. (2013). Smoking, menthol cigarettes and all-cause, cancer and cardiovascular mortality: evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and a meta-analysis. PloS one, 8(10), e77941.

The authors of this book, Jones, Maria and Ana Navas-Acien investigates the connection between cigarette smoking and its cause to cancer and cardiovascular risk in U. S adults. I will, therefore, use this source to support my claim that cigarette consumption causes high chances of cancer since it studies 10,289 adults of below 20 years old for six years. From the study, it is evidenced that cigarette consumers are highly vulnerable to cancer.

Barrington, R. (2016). Health, medicine and politics in Ireland 1900-1970. Health.

Barrington, the author of this journal passionately, associates use of tobacco to be at an upper hand in causing cancer. From the paper, I would use it to show explicitly how cigarette smoking to a greater extent has led to cancer disorder in that a cross-sectional analysis of health and medical claims data for approximately 70,000 South Africans in 2010 have been found to be victims of cancer and other health disorder.

Finegold, J. A., Asaria, P., & Francis, D. P. (2013). Mortality from Ischaemic heart disease by country, region, and age: statistics from World Health Organization and United Nations. International journal of cardiology, 168(2), 934-945.

I will use the above source to support my claim that cigarettes cause cancer in that Finegold et al., came up with the fact that cancer is the main reason as to why death rates are high worldwide. They did a comprehensive analysis for 14 years and used the United States population database to find age-specific death rates by country and region. In their findings, over the last 25 years Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) which is a cancer-related disorder.

Ferlay, J., Steliarova-Foucher, E., Lortet-Tieulent, J., Rosso, S., Coebergh, J. W. W., Comber, H., … & Bray, F. (2013). Cancer incidence and mortality patterns in Europe: estimates for 40 countries in 2012. European journal of cancer, 49(6), 1374-1403.

The source to some extent will support my claim in that the authors of this book articulate on the effects of smoking cigarette to cancer incidences as well as mortality rates, by employing statistical methods to estimate mortality rates in 2012. However, much of the cancer types that led to death were of variety, the most common cancer type that caused death was the lung cancer. It is a clear indicator of tobacco effects from how it causes cancer and finally leading to death.

Hajek, P., Etter, J. F., Benowitz, N., Eissenberg, T., & McRobbie, H. (2014). Electronic cigarettes: the review of use, content, safety, effects on smokers and potential for harm and benefit. Addiction, 109(11), 1801-1810.

This source which is a review of the content and use of cigarettes and its effects on consumers gives statistics on how the human health is affected. It was done through schematic database and screening aimed at helping control deaths that arise from smoking cigarettes as they try to compare it to electronic cigarettes which also contained toxicants as in tobacco smoke but at lower levels.

Goldkorn, T., Filosto, S., & Chung, S. (2014). Lung injury and lung cancer caused by cigarette smoke-induced oxidative stress: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic opportunities involving the ceramide-generating machinery and epidermal growth factor receptor. Antioxidants & redox signaling, 21(15), 2149-2174.

From the source much is articulated by Goldkorn, Filosto and Chung on how cigarette smoking to a greater percentage has led to the dreadful disorder cancer. This article focuses on studying the molecular mechanisms behind smoking-related lung injury as well as lung cancer. The findings from the research as much as health matters are concerned concludes that lung cancer is found to be frequently caused by excessive tobacco smoking.

Proctor, R. N. (2012). The history of the discovery of the cigarette–lung cancer link: evidentiary traditions, corporate denial, global toll. Tobacco control, 21(2), 87-91.

The reason as to why I would use this article to support my claim that cigarettes cause cancer are that being an international peer-reviewed journal on tobacco control, the writers look into the history of lung cancer and how it relates to cigarette consumption. Cigarettes were found to be the cause of the cancer epidemic in the 1940s and 1950s. Hence, this supports my claim that cigarettes cause cancer as the journal clearly indicates that it caused about 1.5 million deaths per year and were likely to rise to 2 million in the year 2030.

Eriksen, M., Mackay, J., & Ross, H. (2013). The tobacco atlas (No. Ed. 4). American Cancer Society.

This source is a 4th edition book articulating the latest statics on the tobacco industry and takes into consideration topics like health risks, youths smoking and mortality rates, further looking into emerging trends like the nicotine delivery systems and electronic cigarettes. It gives meaning and shape to data on tobacco usage and control while also examining possible solutions and potential courses of the epidemic. This book offers a lot as well as to assist me to justify the problems associated with smoking cigarettes especially cancer.

National Center for Health Statistics (The US. (2014). Health Risk Factors.

In this article smoking is associated with a rise in increased risk of heart disease, lung, stroke and other types of cancer. From this book, their stats indicate that from 2002 through 2012, cigarette smoking prevalence reduced amongst the high school seniors and adults between the ages of 18-44 years while for women in the range 45-64 years. These statistics went hand in hand with a decrease in the number of individuals who were being affected by smoking causing diseases.

Jamal, A., Agaku, I. T., O’Connor, E., King, B. A., Kenemer, J. B., & Neff, L. (2014). Current cigarette smoking among adults—the United States, 2005–2013. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, 63(47), 1108-1112.

This article is more of a weekly report that sees into the varied usage of tobacco by different groups of individuals. From this script tobacco usage has led to many adverse diseases and deaths in the United States, resulting in more than 480,000 premature deaths and high direct health care expenditures. It therefore, suggests precisely that were it not for the smoking, there would be no early deaths, and this justifies my claim.


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