High speed wavelength-tunable lasers
A tunable laser is a laser in which the output wavelength can be altered normally regarded as wavelength tuning. In a number of cases, a principally wide tuning range is preferred, that is, a wide range of available wavelengths, whereas in other cases it is appropriate that the laser wavelength can be altered (factory-set) to a specific value (Paschotta, 2016). Occasionally, lasers are referred to as frequency agile or wavelength agile particularly when the alteration can be done with high speed. High-speed wavelength interchanging decreases the quantity of data that must be transferred and makes possible optical interchanging systems without electrical bandwidth and delay constraints.
Types of High speed wavelength-tunable lasers
- Nanosecond pulsed dye lasers
- Nanosecond OPOs and OPAs
- CW Ti:sapphire and dye lasers
- CW standing-wave lasers
- CW ring lasers
- Mode-locked (ultrafast) Ti:sapphire lasers
- Ultrafast synchronously pumped dye lasers (EDU, 2016)
Role or use of High speed wavelength-tunable lasers
Wavelength tunable laser are widely used or applied in fiber-optic networks, broadband devices, bio-technology and treatment diagnostics owing to their extensive tuning range and steady lasing operation.
Challenges of High speed wavelength-tunable lasers
The adjustment in concentration of electrons and holes leads to an adjustment in the refractive index. Which causes a plasma dispersion effect especially in photonics (Wale, 2013).
Supercontinuum light sources
The supercontinuum generation is basically a procedure where laser light is transformed to light with a very wide spectral bandwidth (that is, low temporal consistency), while the spatial consistency or coherence typically remains high (Paschotta, 2016). The spectral widening is commonly achieved by transmitting optical pulses via a powerfully nonlinear device. For instance, you might send a powerful (amplified) ultra-short pulse thru a part of bulk glass (Paschotta, 2016). On the other hand, you can send pulses with far lower pulse energy thru an optical fiber, having a much advanced nonlinearity and also a waveguide structure which confirms a high beam quality.
Types of supercontinuum light sources
- CW Supercontinuum Light Source.
- SC400-PP ultra-broadband supercontinuum radiation source.
- SC480-PP ultra-broadband supercontinuum radiation source.
Role or use of supercontinuum light sources
- Used in White Light Interferometry.
- Used for Optical Component Test.
- Fiber and Grating categorization.
- Used in Optical Coherence Tomography.
- Used for Bio-medical purposes.
- ASE-Alternative (o-eland, 2014)
Challenges of supercontinuum light sources
A recurrent challenge has been increasing the sources of laser light at new wavelengths, since diverse applications usually require lasers operating in particular regions of the electromagnetic spectrum (Genty, 2015).
Optical amplification technology
Optical amplifiers are a vital supporting technology for optical communication networks. Linked with wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) technology, that permits the broadcast of numerous channels over the same fiber, optical amplifiers have generally made it easy to convey numerous terabits of information over distances from a few hundred kilometers and up to transoceanic distances, therefore, providing the information capacity needed for present and future communication systems (Finisar Corporation, 2010).
Types of Optical amplification technology
- Optical parametric amplifier
- Raman amplifier
- Tapered amplifiers
- Semiconductor optical amplifier
- Doped fiber amplifiers
- Erbium-doped optical fiber amplifiers
Role or use of Optical amplification technology
In summary, optical amplifiers are widely used in an optical network as boosters (Finisar Corporation, 2010).
Challenges of Optical amplification technology
The rise in customer or consumer demand and the general machine-to-machine network traffic are currently generating big challenges for letting optical communications remain to scale cost-efficiently. Thus, meeting those demands will necessitate new methods of optical parallelism (Winzer, 2015).
Batch conversion of high speed wavelength technology
All-optical wavelength converter (AOWC) will be a key device for wavelength-routed optical networks based on wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) transmission systems. In AOWCs, ultrahigh-speed operation is one of the attractive features for future Ethernet applications based on optical time-division multiplexing (OTDM) transmission systems (Galili et.al, 2010).
Types of Batch conversion of high speed wavelength technology
- Fiber cables (Optical fiber and Optical fiber cable)
- Wavelength-division multiplexing
Role or use of Batch conversion of high speed wavelength technology
This type of technology is mainly used by numerous telecommunications establishments to convey Internet communication, telephone signals and cable television signals.
Challenges of Batch conversion of high speed wavelength technology
Infrastructure growth in cities has in the past few years proved demanding and time-consuming, and even complex and costly to install and run. Due to such challenges, this type of technology has primarily been connected in long-distance applications, in order to be utilized to their full transmission capacity, therefore offsetting the increased charges.
Optical delay technology
Optical delay technology is particularly important in functional elements and ultra-fast optical science and technology. Optical delay technology has important applications in phased arrays antenna, optical communication systems and all optical computer architecture (Rostami, 2016).
Types of Optical delay technology
- Step-type optical delay line
Role or use of Optical delay technology
Fiber Optic Delay Line systems (FODL) is in the family of optical delay technology and is used mainly in test and improvement laboratories to eradicate radar systems and outdoor range testing of radio.
Challenges of Optical delay technology
One of the widely known technological challenges weakening faster implementation of OCT is the scanning optical delay line centered on the thermo-optical outcome of silicon.
EDU (2016), Tunable Lasers: Generating Wavelengths from the UV through the IR. Retrieved on 22nd January 2016 from http://www.photonics.com/EDU/Handbook.aspx?AID=25043
Finisar Corporation, (2010), Introduction to Optical Amplifiers. Retrieved on 22nd January 2016 from https://www.finisar.com/sites/default/files/resources/Introduction%20to%20Optical%20Amplifiers.pdf
Galili M. et.al, (2010), “Ultra-high-speed optical signal processing of data signals,” in Proceeding of the 37th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York
Genty G. (2015), Supercontinuum light. Retrieved on 22nd Jamuary 2016 from https://hal.archivesouvertes.fr/file/index/docid/905994/filename/Supercontinuum_light_2013_preprint.pdf
O-eland (2014), Supercontinuum Light Source. Retrieved on 22nd January 2016 from http://www.o-eland.com/active/source/supercontinuum.pdf,
Paschotta D. (2016), Supercontinuum Generation. Retrieved on 22nd January 2016 from https://www.rp-photonics.com/supercontinuum_generation.html
Paschotta D. (2016), Tunable Lasers. Retrieved on 22nd January 2016 from https://www.rp-photonics.com/tunable_lasers.html
Rostami A. (2016), Tunable optical delay line using two port ring resonator. Retrieved on 22nd January 2016 from http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4429646&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D4429646
Wale M. (2013), Challenges and Opportunities in Silicon Photonics. Retrieved on 22nd January 2016 from http://www.orc.soton.ac.uk/fileadmin/seminar_pdf/UKSP_Showcase_-_Mike_Wale1.pdf
Winzer A. (2015), Scaling Optical Fiber Networks: Challenges and Solutions. Retrieved on 22nd January 2016 from http://www.osa-opn.org/home/articles/volume_26/march_2015/features/scaling_optical_fiber_networks_challenges_and_solu/