Reading

 

 

 

Title and Author Mark, W. (2012). Issues in supporting the teaching of reading as a second Language to Arabic-Speaking Children. An international Online Journal, 2(12), 146-162.
Research questions
What issues are realized as teachers attempt to support reading while teaching English as second language to Arabic-speaking children.
Literature review (Main points)

  • In-service education programs for language teachers should consider elements included in geographical, cultural, and linguistic context meant for teachers designed for respective courses.
  • Teacher’s belief affects the process of changing methods used when teaching through education programs. As a result, it is important to address their beliefs since beliefs filter the experience and input s teaching goes on.
  • Studying languages during initial literacy involves the capability to read the alphabets. Text exploitation is improved by having the class read aloud. The skill improves the pronunciation of learners and eases silent reading.
  • Nations that speak Arabic are conservatives in oral language and are much involved in reading aloud and reciting texts (Mark, 2012). Example children from Middle-Eastern begin by learning colloquial Arabic from their homes and later study Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) in their schools. Their initial lessons begin with alphabet lessons.
  • Arabic being a phonics language introduces children the relationship between letters and sounds, which enables them to decode serials. The process assists them to read aloud words that they have never seen. The technique is impossible in English language making it hard for Arab children to read phoneme-grapheme patterns in English. As a result, they demand extra introduction to reading of words and recognition of words as symbols.
  • The practice of foreign teachers about skills used in reading is affected by their beliefs, which they reflect as they teach. These beliefs are prone to changes after promotion of constructivist view of teaching and reading.
Data collection
            One teacher under investigation of changed cognitions and practices collected data. Throughout the research methodology, the teacher followed ethical principles. He signed a consent form under promise of anonymity and anytime permission for withdrawal. The process of data collection involved a follow-up qualitative semi-structured-interview, which involved questions such as the influence of BA TESOL on cognitions and practices about reading and teaching in ESL. Second about any change throughout the remaining program. The study included analysis, individual focus, and understanding of perspectives.
Data analysis
A miscue analysis was conducted on identification of problems of learners through class observation, and personal recording of readings. Miscue analysis identifies reading of texts aloud, use of various cognitive strategies and their processing.
Findings
            Data collected among seventh grade students on reading aloud sentences written on the board as they observe and make notes. Findings were that six among them would not read a single word. The students gave reasons for their inability such as a belief that they were failures and had no room for improvement. Secondly, some reported having repeated in the same class for three years since they could not pass exams meant for promotion. Thirdly, some had passed end-of-year exams in grades 5 and 6 but could not proceed from there due to their inability to read.
Conclusion and implications
            Individual and environmental factors are related to problems experienced by learners. Example psychological, physical, low intelligence,  personality and emotional issues, poor development of language, poor conditions in school and absenteeism.
            Environmental problems include lack of a school library, enough textbooks, and interesting reading materials that motivate pupils to read. Moreover, some teachers employ the technique of asking students to look and say what they have memorized. The later posed a danger among students since they could not grasp unfamiliar words making them unable to read by themselves.
            A conclusion was to invite parents in the school to discuss the issues affecting their children. Advises could be offered in the meetings such as encouraging parents to buy text books for their children and read to them. They could also be advised to ask for help from older siblings in doing garden work and housework to avoid wasting time.
            The implication would be an improvement of their children reading styles and improvement in reading unseen words. Moreover, there would be improvements in their grades.
Favorite quotes
·         Omar quoted that “his school days were numbered.”

·         Students said “reading aloud is done only by weaker classes or pupils”.

·         Reading is “ a slow, difficult and thus demotivating process”.

·         Grade 7 teachers book(ELCD,1998) quotes that “ the amount of reading aloud pupils are asked to do is reduced as they progress”.

Questions
·         Are there no universal teaching methods for use by teachers in teaching all students from all corners of the world?

·         Are there no encouraging stories which when read aloud are interesting to students?

·         Are there no strict rules about students reading aloud?

 
 Future readings
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2016). Acquiring English as a second             language. Retrieved from http://www.asha.org/public/speech/development/easl.htm
Dunn, O. (2015). How young children learn English as a second language. Retrieved             fromhttp://learnenglishkids.britishcouncil.org/en/parents/articles/how-young-children-learn-english-another-language
 

 

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