Epidemiology study of diabetes
Article: Herman, W. (2006). Diabetes epidemiology: Guiding clinical and public health practice. The Kelly West Award Lecture. Diabetes care, 7 (30), 1912-1919.
Why did the scientists perform the study (i.e. brief description of background)?
Diabetes epidemiology was conducted to provide a good base for public health and clinical practices. It guides the definition, diagnose and screening of diabetes and elaborate its present and future burden. It also highlights intervention opportunities. Historically a diabetes diagnosis criterion has been dependant on the levels of the load for post-glucose levels. Diabetes is related with deficiency and hyperglycemia; endocrine principles are in a better position to suggest stimulated or post-glucose load level should differentiate normal from abnormal, better than unstimulated or fasting levels of glucose.
More concern from scientists was raised by increased deaths and complications from diabetes worldwide.
Specify any possible connection between the exposure and the disease.
Exposure to high levels of sugar or low sugar levels leads to failure of pancreas causing diabetes.
What was the hypothesis (or hypotheses) under investigation?
The hypotheses under investigation indicated that populations having high diabetes prevalence have a bimodal distribution of levels of glucose. Secondly, diabetes can be termed as glucose levels greater than antimode.
- C) What were the major techniques used in the study?
Fasting plasma glucose and 2-h plasma glucose was among methods used to diagnose levels of glucose. Second method includes 60-90-120 minutes post-glucose load values whereby the recommended cut off point was 140 mg/dl. A third method includes a fasting glucose of 125 mg/dl and a 2-h value of 140 mg/dl.
- D) What were the major results, did they support or negate the hypothesis, and do they point to further/future studies?
The results indicated that fasting plasma glucose associated with retinophy ranged between 108 and 130 mg/dl and 2-h plasma glucose threshold ranged between 155 and 215 mg/dl, which were consistent with current diabetes diagnostic criteria. The level of glucose in patients having ‘idiopathic’ which is a painful sensory neuropathy and indicated that 30-50% had IGT which suggested that lower hyperglycemia degrees may be related to diabetic neuropathy. Future cohort studies done for 11 years, conducted among 22 European and among 30,000 patients with no diabetes history showed that ratio of harzards for cardiovascular mortality begin increasing from 2-h plasma glucose levels, which are between 140 and 200 mg/dl.
They supported the stated hypothesis by defining that diabetes is associated with hyperglycemia, related to serious outcomes in health. Secondly, if complications such as micro vascular and neuropathic are considered, then 2-h threshold used to defining diabetes should be at the level that currently defines IGT (140 mg/dl).
In the future using this definition for diabetes would erase the distinction between IGT and diabetes, promote, and change present lifestyles and its pharmacologic interventions for management of glycemic. It would advocate for aggressive management of cardiovascular risk factors and earlier surveillance neuropathic complications and micro vascular problems.
- E) Why did you choose this particular article to review? Was it interesting, informative, clearly written, or none of the above? All credit will be given for your honest opinions
MY choice for this article arose from its proper organization and explanation of diabetes and its levels. It begins by explaining the meaning of diabetes, how it should be diagnosed, how it should be screened, present, and future burden, and what should be done. It continues with explaining its cost-effectiveness of prevention and what should be done about cost. All this information provides a lot of information to the readers.
Article’s public health implications
The article projected that there would be an increase in diabetes worldwide by 122% from 135 million to 300 million. Diabetic adults are expected to increase by 42% among developed countries from 51 million to 72million, and among developed countries, it would increase from 84 million to 228 million.
Herman, W. (2006).Diabetes epidemiology: Guiding clinical and public health practice. The Kelly West Award Lecture. Diabetes care, 7(30), 1912-1919.
Nigatu, T. (2012).Epidemiology, complications and management of diabetes in Ethiopia: A systematic review. Journal of diabetes, 2(4), 174-180.
Sacks, D., Arnold, M., Bakris, G., Bruns, D.(2011).Guidelines and recommendations for laboratory analysis in the diagnosis and management of diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes care, 1(34),1-39.