The body of a given human being is made up of several organ systems. These systems have to be kept on balance through different mechanisms. When the body of a given human being experience metabolic imbalances, it simply means that either one or more of its systems are defective. It is our responsibility to provide clients with metabolic imbalance with relevant medication and consultations. It is important to note that client X is suffering from metabolic imbalances due to weight gain and insomnia that she undergoing.
Client X is a female aged 59 and stands 1.60 m tall. She weighs 78 kg. The client is married and has two sons aged 26 years and 28 years. She lost one of her son 2 years ago when he was 21 years old. He died due to complications that arose from cystic fibrosis. The second born son aged 26 years also suffers from cystic fibrosis and he lives with his mother at home. The client is a psychotherapist by profession and her clients are victims of abuse. Her main goal is reduce insomnia and weight. The client has been unable to have enough sleep over the past. She has also experience weight problems from her teenage and the same has happened to her family members. The client has the following symptoms: Hiatus hernia; hyperactivity; itchy skin; and arthritis on one her knees. Client X is a Polish Jew and her family members survived from holocaust. She is compassionate and very intelligent. Most of her family members have suffered from cancer and cardio-vascular diseases in the past.
In summary we are going to look at metabolic imbalances the client is suffering from. We shall also review how the metabolic imbalances have been influenced by her personality type, diet, age, lifestyle and stress levels. This paper also discusses on the current metabolic imbalance symptoms and the health problems she is likely to suffer from in the coming days. It will also identify relevant additional information that would help in addressing the plight of client X. it will also determine some of the alarming symptoms to her health that need to be addressed urgently. It would also recommend on functional and standard medical tests that should be applied on client X. finally the paper will provide the client with information on these medical tests that she can easily carry out on her own.
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system is known as one of the major neuroendocrine systems that help the body to respond to stress. Chronic inflammation is associated with metabolic syndrome and obesity. When HPA system is imbalanced, the body becomes intolerant to glucose intake. This is a contributing factor to the obesity problem that the client X is suffering from. The excess weight that is experienced by the client around the middle of her legs and arms is attest that there is an imbalance on her HPA system. HPA imbalance on client X can be attributed to by the fact that she lost her 21 years old son two years ago. The client is normally exposed to stress and this is dangerous to her HPA system. These are some of the related symptoms that show how HPA system is imbalanced.
Thyroid system is controlled by thyroid hormone that is produced by thyroid glands. This hormone helps the body to regulates its heart beat rates and rate calories burning. This hormone should be produced in a given amount and should not be less or more. Women who have ever been pregnant or have reached menopause stage are more likely to suffer from thyroid system. From the information provided on the client, it is easy to understand that she has reached her menopause. She also exhibits hyperactivity and fatigue. Despite losing weight when her son died, she has continued to gain more weight in the recent past. This is a contributing factor that there is an imbalance on her thyroid system.
Digestive system includes liver, intestines and stomach. This system operates on acid base balance mechanism. When there is an imbalance on the digestive system, the body ceases to function properly. The regular bowel movements that at least once every day and subsequent belching and bloating are contributing factors towards digestive system imbalance. These are some of the related symptoms that client X exhibits to show how their digestive system.
Female sex hormones imbalance is one of the factors that have caused some of these metabolic imbalances. The most common female sex hormones are progesterone and estrogen. These female sex hormones have to be produced at the right quantities to avoid imbalance. Blood sugar level, memory balance, memory functions are controlled by estrogen hormone when produced in the right quantity. Progesterone hormone on the hand helps the body to reduce its body fats and anxiety. Related symptoms on client X include hyperactivity, restlessness and fatigue.
Diet taken by client X includes processed meat, dairy foods and hard cheeses. These kinds of foods include high amount of proteins and fats. They are contributing factors to weight gain and HPA system imbalance. When this occurs, obesity is experienced on the affected individual. With this kind of diet, client X is likely to expound her weight problem.
Personality type determines the metabolic imbalance on both HPA and digestive systems. For instance, the personality type makes her to be self driven. She also works on fulltime basis making her to be busy most of her time. She keeps awake most of the time and does not eat all her meals. This causes imbalance in her HPA and digestive systems.
Fulltime work makes her to lead to a stressful life because she has to work and the same time take care of her son suffering from cystic fibrosis. Client X has even developed resistance to herbal remedies and sleeping tablets. She is always busy and sleeplessness slows down her important systems such as HPA and digestive system. When this happens, the food will not be well digested and it will be a contributing factor to metabolic imbalance.
Lifestyle of an individual affects the normal operation of his/her systems therefore causing metabolic imbalances. The lifestyle of client X is very active and does not allow her enough time to rest. This makes her hyperactive and fatigued.
Age is a contributing factor to metabolic imbalances. When one is young all his/her systems function effectively. These systems fail to function the same way as one grows older. Client X is 59 years old and has therefore reached menopause. Most of her body parts have failed especially one of her legs which have contracted arthritis.
Based on the family medical history of client X and the metabolic imbalances that she has exhibited, it is can be predicted that she is likely to suffer from cardio-vascular and hypertension. She is at risk of developing these lifestyle diseases due to weight gains and stressful life she is leading.
Her current stress level is rated at 8/10. She worries so much about her responsibilities at work, the health conditions of her son and also her studies. She does not find time to relax and even carry out exercises. She continues to gain weight and will suffer from obesity. Obesity will lead to cardiovascular disease while high level of stress will lead to hypertension.
Client X risks contacting hypertension due to her 8/10 stress level. Her lifestyle is also very active and gives her less time for relaxation. This will increase her blood pressure, therefore a contributing factor to hypertension. Her diet is associated with processed meat and dairy products. This is a contributing factor to obesity and eventually cardio-vascular disease. Her personality type makes her very concerned with work and family issues leaving her with no time for herself. This is a contributing factor to hypertension. Her age is advancing therefore her systems will cease to perform normally. Failing systems may be a cause to hypertension and cardio-vascular disease.
The marital status of the client would be useful in this case because it would have enabled the medical providers to know whether there is someone who can support her both physically and emotionally. Do you live with your first born son? Are you the one that takes care of all your bills? What do you do during holidays?
Currently there is already a red flag on her weight compared to her height. BMI indicates that she is already obese. She is does not eat excess calorie and sweet foods. These measures are taken to control her blood sugar level and also to avoid being obese. These conditions are indications that she headed towards suffering from cardiovascular diseases and hypertension.
Salivary cortisol or urinary-free cortisol is conducted as a standard method to determine the effects of stress on glucose absorption. It will also determine the metabolic imbalances on her system. Other tests that can be conducted on the client to determine her health condition included dexamethasone suppression test and plasma cortisol.
All the above mentioned tests are functional and would provide required results to the clients. However salivary cortisol is the simplest functional test and could be conducted by the client herself. The required specimen for this test is saliva. The other equipment is cheap and readily available.
Grundy SM, Cleeman JI, Daniels SR, et al. Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome: an American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Scientific Statement. Circulation. 2005;112:2735–275
Reaven GM. The insulin resistance syndrome: definition and dietary approaches to treatment. Annu Rev Nutr. 2005;25:391
Ogden CL, Carroll MD, McDowell MA, Flegal KM. Obesity among adults in the United States – no statistically significant chance since 2003–2004. NCHS Data Brief. 2007:1–8
Bray GA, Bellanger T. Epidemiology, trends, and morbidities of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Endocrine. 2006;29:109–117.
Peeke PM, Chrousos GP. Hypercortisolism and obesity. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1995;771:665–676.
Kyrou I, Chrousos GP, Tsigos C. Stress, visceral obesity, and metabolic complications. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;1083:77–110.
Bjorntorp P. Visceral obesity: a ‘civilization syndrome’ Obes Res. 1993;1:206–222.
Michelson D, Stratakis C, Hill L, et al. Bone mineral density in women with depression. N Engl J Med. 1996;335:1176–1181.
Mann JN, Thakore JH. Melancholic depression and abdominal fat distribution: a mini-review. Stress. 1999;3:1–15.
Kanjilal S, Gregg EW, Cheng YJ, et al. Socioeconomic status and trends in disparities in 4 major risk factors for cardiovascular disease among US adults, 1971–2002. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166:2348–2355.
McLaren L. Socioeconomic status and obesity. Epidemiol Rev. 2007;29:29–48.
Stranges S, Cappuccio FP, Kandala NB, et al. Cross-sectional versus prospective associations of sleep duration with changes in relative weight and body fat distribution: the Whitehall II study. Am J Epidemiol. 2008;167:321–329.
Brunner EJ, Chandola T, Marmot MG. Prospective effect of job strain on general and central obesity in the Whitehall II study. Am J Epidemiol. 2007;165:828–837.
Chandola T, Brunner E, Marmot M. Chronic stress at work and the metabolic syndrome: prospective study. BMJ. 2006;332:521–525.