Globally, putting into consideration the functions of the non-state actors that have increased over the decades, it is a fact that the non-state actors have enhanced a significant influence on the international crisis. Power between the non-state and the national state provides the contrasting aspects between the two states.
The changing initiatives in the world involve changes in international conflicts putting into consideration the increase of salience and power by the non-state actors. Nonstate actors include organizations and individuals who have a significant influence probably political, but they are not allied to any particular state or country.
The aspect of the ethnic rival has become an important issue in the international turmoil over the past few decades. Many ethnic groups have struggled to catalyze global crisis, and hence, confront the national’s state (Finger 2008). War, conflict, crisis have occurred in the past decades and are still in the center of world politics. ICB says that a global crisis occurs when a change is incurred in any consequences, and disruptive interactions are enhanced between two states hence, leading to hostility.
The non-state actors have become political influential to the state as a result of power increase. One of the elements of the organized political group behavior is enhanced by the amount of power. This signifies that if the non-state actors have become political influential they have gained power with the state. According to Rose 1997, stated that when addressing the concepts of continuity, change in the political world and state decline together with nonstate enhancement which has become a significant force in the international relation as a result of specific of power and skills (Ram 2009). According to this statement, the global changes have become multi-centric as a result of involving the significance of he state structure and the incapability of the nonstate actors system.
The classification of power resources will be applied to distinguish the difference between national state and the on- state actors. The unique elements of the noun -state actors for instance absence of the military force, territory and sovereignty, will be monitored.
Non-state actors are political actors identified with the aim of carrying out a particular function within the state. Non -state actors contrasts adversary from the nation-state actors in the different perspective and include racial, national, tribal and religious. The non-state actors possess the power that is measured differently from the national state in connection with the objectives in which they are involved within the particular period. Nonstate actors are not provided with the terrestrial sovereignty as compared to the national states. Additionally, they are not entitled to any economic capabilities and military perspectives as compared to the national state. When the nonstate officials become politically organized, they possess different powers and characteristics.
On the other hand, national states are required to fulfill various functions which include dealing with the entire initiatives of their citizens. This is distinct from the nonstate actors who are focused on goal achievement for a particular group since their role is limited. The power of the nonstate actors provides a significant orientation of the nonstate actors representing the specific domains of power that characterizes them militarily and politically.
State agents have little capabilities on power resources as compared to the national state. One of the most valuable power resources of an actor involves human resources. Involving individuals to the primary cause of non-state actors is a significant aspect involved in the creation of a political actor. Therefore, since the other major resource is the military, they strive to reconsider weaponry. The quality and amount of weapons held by the non-state actors is an important initiative in enhancing its overall power.
Another difference between the national state and the non-state actors include diplomatic power. When independence is provided by a state, other countries consider it as a sovereign state. With that type of authority, they possess the right to control the country in addition to the application of force. In contrast, non-state actors in a position to contend with the national states do not achieve the support or recognition from other countries either on the international basis or local subsystem. The absence of the power obstructs the attempts of the non-states to get support and recognition since both recognition and legitimacy are important aspects to be acquired by any actor to carry its function within the international sphere. Diplomatic power is provided to states for international recognition, and it illustrated in a significant support of moral, military, economic and political.
Question two: Discussion:
Since the development of the intelligence agency in 1997 the modern intelligence community in America is composed of thirteen federal organizations that have initially focused on the traditional analysis and information collection. In the 1960s, the American intelligence concentrated on the Soviet Union threats as one of the possibilities of the Western Europe war and the support for the Southeast Asia conflicts. The threats provided a significant approach through which information was analyzed and collected by different intelligence members. In the 1990s, the US intelligence communication focused on Terrorism from the Soviet Union. However, the intelligence infrastructure analyzes did not change and still up to date has not changed.
During the cold war, United States did not understand the significance of the intelligence capabilities as it understands currently. But as they entered in world War 11 the United States saw the need for the intelligence community in enhancing support to the war fighter. As a result of the cold war, the provision of a permanent and new intelligence infrastructure was introduced. The intelligence communities developed were created to support the effort of the war by the military services. The military intelligence service effectively provided the overall analysis of intelligence to the US and issued commands. On the other hand, different elements of the intelligence community were assigned different operating forces in the intelligence field community. They were responsible for gathering and analyzing different signals of intelligence and interpreting intelligence information
Intelligence community roles vary from providing accurate and timely crisis information to the president to monitoring different array targets and forecasting several challenging initiative while the traditional policy instruments are considered unsuitable. It is important to consider that the cold war shaped the intelligence community in America. Two significant developments led to the shaping of the data infrastructure policy in 1960 and 1970. One of the major aspects includes the technical approaches to collecting information. Technological methods of obtaining information by the intelligence community were suited to achieve troop movement information and other targets of the cold war. Another significant development during the cold war involved the formation of different intelligence community agency. As the government enhanced its effective toward electronic collection methods, new intelligence agencies emerged. As a result of the enormous number of the organizations integrating and coordinating became one of the challenging aspects.
Terrorism was one of the major concerns in the in the 1970s and 80s and was considered as a secondary element of the intelligence community only after its collapse in 1990s. In 1993, the world trade center was bombed which appeared to be a surprise to the intelligence community. Although terrorism threats have been widely understood and known, national security spending decreased remarkably over the decades which impacted the intelligence community as well as the counterterrorism community as a result of limiting the resources and hence leading to the failures of the intelligence community.
Currently, the central intelligence agency lacks the organization and the resources to carry its role effectively. The inability to provide the mass destructions weapons from Iraq’s and underestimated 1991 to 2003 illustrated how the intelligence community in the US is failing its citizens.
The information analysis provided by the intelligence agency, the Central Intelligence Directorate does not provide international and national expertise. In fact, the overall system does not recognize skill in the offered positions rather than acknowledges management capability.
Therefore, to address the following issue the covet actions will be significant in enhancing intelligence role. The covert action applies intelligence capabilities as well as functions to influence foreign governments, organizations, events in support of the objectives of the foreign policy at the same time; the sponsor’s actins are concealed. The covet actions offer a significant role of the intelligence community that involves including other governmental agency support, for instance, the operational forces of the military. The covert actions were one of the significant elements applied between the Democratic East and the Communist East.
Since covert action is one of the policy instruments, Ame’s scandal has been in action with questions ranging from, intelligence community relevance, timeliness, accuracy, quality and covert control effectiveness. Different proposals have been developed, restructured and reexamined on the role of the intelligence community, but the key initiative is that the community is required to be refocused, downsized and streamlined on different targets hence becoming more efficient.
Currently, predictions have been made on crisis occurrences in the future. Therefore, enhancement of the HUMINT collection will be significant in answering the intelligence questions about the present and future crisis. Automation and technology offer important means of offsetting personnel loss, but it is required of scientific and trained staff. Over the years, the intelligence community analysts have understood the mechanisms to be applied to meet the intelligence needs.
Finger, Thomas C. Global Trends 2015: A Transformed World . US Government Printing Office, 2008.
Ram Mishali M. Powerful Actors Make a Difference: Theorizing Power Attributes of Non-State Actors. International Journal of Peace Studies: 2009